Circus macrourus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

Translate page into:

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Accipitriformes Accipitridae

Scientific Name: Circus macrourus
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Pallid Harrier, Pale Harrier
French Busard pâle
Spanish Aguilucho Papialbo
Identification information: 40-48cm. Narrow winged, lightly built harrier, with similar structure and flight to C. pygargus with female and juvenile however closer to C. cyaneus in structure and plumage details. Adult male unmistakeable, with pale grey and white plumage, relieved only by black wing-tips. Adult female dark brown above, streaked below, with barred tail. Similar spp. Adult female can be distinguished from C. pygargus by lack of solid dark trailing edge to inner primaries when seen in flight from below combined with duller secondaries, lack of dark bar along mid-secondaries on upperwing, and a series of subtle characters. Juvenile differs from C. pygargus in having almost white ruff-collar rather than dark neck shawl, same primary pattern as for female and other subtle characters. Female and juvenile C. macrourus also resemble C. cyaneus, but the latter species is larger, with proportionately shorter and broader wings. Voice Little known, but said to be similar to that of C. pygargus and C. cyaneus. Usually silent in winter.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Bragin, E., Brouwer, J., Corso, A., Hall, P., Katzner, T., Morozov, V., Murphy, P., Pomeroy, D., Simmons, R., Tyler, S. & Vintchevski, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Capper, D., Derhé, M., Peet, N., Pilgrim, J., Taylor, J., Temple, H., Khwaja, N., Symes, A., Ashpole, J
This species is known to be undergoing steep population decline in Europe, although numbers in its Asiatic strongholds are thought to be more stable. Thus it is probably experiencing a moderately rapid population decline overall, and consequently it is categorised as Near Threatened as it almost qualifies for listing under criteria A2cde+3cde+4cde.

Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species breeds primarily in the steppes of Asiatic Russia, Kazakhstan and north-west China. Small populations breed in Azerbaijan, Romania, Turkey and Ukraine. A minority winter in south-east and central Europe, north Africa and the Middle East but most migrate to the Afrotropics (Sudan, South Sudan, Eritrea, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Chad, Niger, Mali, Senegal, Gambia, Sierra Leone, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Burkina Faso, Nigeria, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Angola, Namibia, Botswana, Swaziland and South Africa) and the Indian subcontinent (Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bangladesh and Myanmar) (Thiollay 1994). There are also records from the Maldives. In 2007, six pairs bred in the Moscow region for the very first time (A. Vintchevski in litt. 2007). The global population is estimated at 9,000-15,000 pairs (Galushin et al. 2003), and has shown marked declines and range contractions. The European population (currently estimated at 300-1,100 pairs in Azerbaijan, Finland, Romania, Turkey, Ukraine and western Russia, occupying c.40% of the global breeding range [BirdLife International 2015]) was recently reassessed (Galushin et al. 2003, BirdLife International 2004a). Following a large decline in Europe during 1970-1990 (Tucker and Heath 1994), when up to 30% of birds were lost (particularly from the key population in European Russia), the species continued to decline in 1990-2000, and overall trends exceeded 30% over three generations (18 years) (BirdLife International 2004a). It appears that the species has been extirpated from Moldova and Belarus, where it bred formerly (Galushin et al. 2003, BirdLife International 2004a). In Asia, however, the population is presumed to be more stable. Surveys in the Kustanay Oblast region (northern Kazakhstan) from 1997 to 2004 indicate a fluctuating but ostensibly stable population of 1,500-2,000 pairs, nesting at a density of 9.4-25 pairs per 100 km2 (Bragin 1999, E. Bragin in litt. 2005). No other detailed surveys are known from the species's Asiatic range, although anecdotal evidence from southern Kazakhstan (Almaty to Chockpack Bird Station) suggests that it is locally abundant (A. Corso in litt. 2005). Assessment of the status of this species is complicated by the fact that on breeding territories numbers fluctuate in response to environmental conditions, probably numbers of small mammals. Thus, high or low numbers in any given year or two-year period may be indicative of change in demographics or they may be indicative of change in local environment (and birds may go elsewhere without their population size changing) (T. Katzner in litt. 2005). Reliable records from migration routes and wintering grounds are also difficult to obtain owing to the rarity of the species, its broad-front migration strategy, and difficulties in field identification, although important concentrations of birds have been identified in parts of India and Africa (Galushin et al. 2003).

Countries occurrence:
Afghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Angola; Armenia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Belarus; Benin; Botswana; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Chad; China; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Croatia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Gambia; Georgia; Ghana; Greece; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Hungary; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Italy; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Lebanon; Liberia; Libya; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Malawi; Maldives; Mali; Malta; Mauritania; Moldova; Mongolia; Montenegro; Mozambique; Myanmar; Namibia; Nepal; Niger; Nigeria; Oman; Pakistan; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Qatar; Romania; Russian Federation (Central Asian Russia, Eastern Asian Russia, European Russia); Rwanda; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Serbia; Sierra Leone; Slovakia; Slovenia; Somalia; South Africa; South Sudan; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Syrian Arab Republic; Tajikistan; Tanzania, United Republic of; Togo; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; Yemen; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Possibly extinct:
Belgium; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Germany; Gibraltar; Iceland; Japan; Lesotho; Liechtenstein; Luxembourg; Malaysia; Netherlands; Norway; Spain (Canary Is.); Sweden; Switzerland; United Kingdom
Present - origin uncertain:
Bhutan; Swaziland
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:8440000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Upper elevation limit (metres):4000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The global population is estimated at 9,000-15,000 pairs. The European population is estimated at 300-1,100 breeding females, which equates to 600-2,300 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend Justification:  The species is judged to be in moderately rapid decline overall, based on results from population surveys: A large decline occurred in Europe during 1970-1990 (Tucker and Heath 1994), when up to 30% of birds were lost (particularly from the key population in European Russia), and the species continued to decline in 1990-2000, when overall trends exceeded 30% over three generations (18 years) (BirdLife International 2004a). It appears that the species has been extirpated from Moldova and Belarus, where it bred formerly (Galushin et al. 2003, BirdLife International 2004a). The European population trend was assessed as unknown in the 2015 European Red List of Birds, with decreases, fluctuations, increases and unknown trends reported for the various range countries (BirdLife International 2015).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
No. of subpopulations:2-100Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It breeds in semi-desert, steppe and forest-steppe up to 2,000 m, where its favoured nesting sites are wet grasslands close to small rivers and lakes, and marshlands (Galushin et al. 2003, Snow and Perrins 1998). The species has also been found to breed in agricultural areas, at least when agriculture is non-intensive (Terraube et al. 2009). A small minority of the population breeds in the boreal forest and forest-tundra zones, north of its main breeding range (Kuznetsov 1994, Morozov in litt. 1999), where it nests in clearings and other open areas (Galushin et al. 2003). Semi-desert, scrub, savanna and wetlands are used in winter (J. Brouwer in litt.). The species is migratory, with most birds wintering in sub-Saharan Africa or south-east Asia. They leave their breeding grounds between August and November and return in March and April (del Hoyo et al. 1994). Birds migrate on a broad front, with only minor concentrations at bottleneck sites (del Hoyo et al. 1994, Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). Although birds are most often seen singly, females and juveniles can form parties of 10-15 on migration (Snow and Perrins 1998, Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). Birds fly at c.1-9 m above the ground when hunting (del Hoyo et al. 1994, Snow and Perrins 1998); they fly generally higher on migration but tend to remain from c.1-15 m above the ground (Brown et al. 1982).

Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Generation Length (years):6
Movement patterns:Full Migrant
Congregatory:Congregatory (and dispersive)

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): In its breeding range it is primarily threatened by the destruction and degradation of steppe grasslands through conversion to arable agriculture, burning of vegetation, intensive grazing of wet pastures and the clearance of shrubs and tall weeds (Galushin et al. 2003, E. Bragin in litt. 2007). Fires are started by farmers, arsonists and dry thunderstorms (E. Bragin in litt. 2007). On its wintering grounds it is thought to be negatively affected by the use of harmful pesticides, rodenticides and other toxic chemicals (R. Simmons in litt. 1999, Galushin et al. 2003), although this requires further research, and by the loss of grassland due to burning, cutting and overgrazing (Galushin et al. 2003).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
It is listed in Appendix II of CITES, Annex II of the Bonn and Bern Conventions and in Annex I of the EU Birds Directive. It is also listed in the Red Data Books of Belarus, Ukraine, Russia and Turkey (Galushin et al. 2003, Kiliç and Eken 2004). It occurs in five state nature reserves in Russia and in Naurzum and Korgaljin Nature Reserves in Kazakhstan (Galushin et al. 2003). An International Action Plan for the species was produced in 2003 (Galushin et al. 2003).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Encourage conservation of wetlands and ponds in typical steppe grassland and semi-desert. Support moderate grazing and conservation of grasslands. Develop survey methodology (including GIS) and carry out surveys, primarily in the core breeding range and, secondarily, to establish its northern and southern range limits as well as to search for new nesting places outside core breeding grounds. Carry out research into diet and foraging range size, and their role in the movement of populations. Lobby for enactment and enforcement of legislation banning the use of harmful pesticides in the winter range, and in the recovering agricultural economy in the breeding range. Survey grassland and thorn-forest areas in African and Indian winter range for significant roosting concentrations, including tracking birds by means of satellite telemetry as soon as feasible. Review roost site and catchment area management at winter roosts, most urgently in areas where agriculture is changing due to new irrigation schemes, and pursue any necessary conservation action. Carry out research into pesticide residues in corpses, and pesticide use in winter roost catchment areas. Encourage full legal protection and education in countries on migration routes and in the winter range (Galushin et al. 2003).

Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Circus macrourus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22695396A90188432. . Downloaded on 22 October 2017.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided