||Spilornis kinabaluensis Sclater, 1919
||Kinabalu Serpent-eagle, Kinabalu Serpent-eagle, Mountain Serpent Eagle, Mountain Serpent-Eagle
||Culebrera del Kinabalu
||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
||51-56 cm. Small, dark, forest-dwelling eagle. Plumage dark brown, speckled paler on underparts, wings and hindneck. Rich umber-brown patch on nape. Black throat. Fairly long, blackish tail with broad white band. Long wings with black tips and white bases to flight feathers. Similar spp. Its widespread relative, Crested Serpent-eagle S. cheela, is paler with shorter wings and narrower, less distinct greyish-white band on tail. Hints Frequently soars over ridge-tops and occurs at higher altitudes than S. cheela. Voice High repeated whistling notes similar to S. cheela.
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
||Davison, G., Mann, C., van Balen, B. & Eaton, J.
||Benstead, P., Bird, J., Davidson, P., Taylor, J., Tobias, J., Westrip, J., Martin, R
Given the small range and relative mobility of this species, it is judged to comprise a single small population which is likely to be decreasing as a result of continuing habitat loss and degradation creeping up hill-slopes into its altitudinal range. For these reasons it qualifies as Vulnerable.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2016 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2012 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2008 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2004 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2000 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1996 – Data Deficient (DD)
- 1994 – Data Deficient (DD)
- 1988 – Threatened (T)
|Range Description:||Spilornis kinabaluensis is confined to the mountains of central and northern Borneo in Brunei, Sabah and Sarawak, Malaysia, and Kalimantan, Indonesia (BirdLife International 2001). From observations in the 1980s and 1990s, it appears to be a genuinely scarce species, with a small total population. However, much of its range is infrequently visited and it may prove to be more widespread than current indications suggest. It is likely to occur more or less continuously along the Crocker Range from Mount Kinabalu to Ulu Padas, G. Mulu and the border mountains of Brunei, and Gunung Murud (Pulong Tau National Park) (G. Davison in litt. 2007). Five individuals were seen in the Menyapa Mountains during surveys in 2007, which represents a southerly range extension for the species (Brickle et al. 2010), though the southern and western limits of its distribution are poorly known and need to be investigated, e.g., its occurrence in the Kelabit Highlands and Usun Apau, Kayan Mentarang and central montane parts of Kalimantan (G. Davison in litt. 2007).|
Brunei Darussalam; Indonesia; Malaysia
|♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||68000|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Number of Locations:||11-100||♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No||♦ Lower elevation limit (metres):||1500|
|♦ Upper elevation limit (metres):||2500|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population is estimated to number 2,500-9,999 mature individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 3,750-14,999 individuals, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.|
Trend Justification: A population decline is suspected on the basis of rates of logging and land clearance from lower altitudes up into the montane habitat of this species. The likely rate of population decline, however, has not been estimated.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|♦ Number of mature individuals:||2500-9999||♦ Continuing decline of mature individuals:||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations:||No||♦ Population severely fragmented:||No|
|♦ No. of subpopulations:||1||♦ Continuing decline in subpopulations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:||No||♦ All individuals in one subpopulation:||Yes|
|♦ No. of individuals in largest subpopulation:||100|