Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Accipitriformes Accipitridae

Scientific Name: Icthyophaga ichthyaetus
Species Authority: (Horsfield, 1821)
Common Name(s):
English Grey-headed Fish-eagle, Grey-headed Fish-Eagle, Grey-headed Fish Eagle, Grey-headed Fishing Eagle
Spanish Pigarguillo Común
Icthyophaga ichthyaetus
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Davidson, P. & Naoroji, R.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Mahood, S., Taylor, J.
Although widespread, this species is now only locally common and may have a moderately small population, which is thought to be undergoing a moderately rapid population reduction owing to habitat degradation, pollution and over-fishing. It is therefore classified as Near Threatened.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Near Threatened (NT)
2004 Near Threatened (NT)
2000 Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
1994 Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
1988 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Icthyophagus icthyaetus occurs in India (widespread and locally frequent in the north-east, scarce and local in the peninsula, Nepal (now rare and local, mainly below 250 m), Sri Lanka (rare in the dry lowlands), Bangladesh (widely distributed but uncommon and local), Myanmar (rare to scarce resident), Philippines (formerly quite common in the north and east, now rare and apparently declining), Thailand (formerly a widespread resident, now absent from north and centre, rare and local in the south), Laos (now rare), Vietnam (scarce in south, disappearing from north), Cambodia (scarce and declining [P. Davidson in litt. 2003]), Peninsular Malaysia (previously common, now uncommon and sparse, perhaps 40 pairs remaining), east Malaysia, Singapore (scarce), Brunei (scarce), and the Greater Sundas and Sulawesi, Indonesia (widely distributed but uncommon in Sumatra and Borneo, and now very rare in Java) (Collar et al. 2000). Although widely distributed, the species is local and declining in most parts of its range through loss of forested wetlands. However, historical and even recent records are difficult to interpret, in South-East Asia at least, due to identification difficulties between this species and Lesser Fish-eagle I. humilis.

Countries occurrence:
Bangladesh; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; India; Indonesia; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia; Myanmar; Nepal; Philippines; Singapore; Sri Lanka; Thailand; Viet Nam
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 4840000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Upper elevation limit (metres): 300
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species's global population is preliminarily estimated at 10,000-100,000 mature individuals on the basis that it may not exceed a five-figure total. This estimate equates to 15,000-150,000 individuals in total.

Trend Justification:  A moderately rapid and on-going population decline is suspected on the basis of rates of habitat degradation and levels of pollution and over-fishing.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 10000-100000 Continuing decline of mature individuals: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It is found near slow-moving rivers and streams, lakes, reservoirs and tidal lagoons in wooded country, usually in lowlands but ascending locally to 1,525 m.

Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Unknown
Generation Length (years): 17.3
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The most pertinent threats are the loss of undisturbed wetlands, over-fishing, siltation, pollution and persecution. The construction of dams on the Mekong River has potential negative implications for the flood regime of Lake Tonle Sap and the Fish-eagle population there.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
None is known.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey to reveal important areas and regularly monitor at various sites throughout its range. Protect forest in areas known to be important to the species. Conduct awareness campaigns involving local residents to engender pride in the species and encourage better care of wetland habitats.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Icthyophaga ichthyaetus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22695163A37837898. . Downloaded on 09 October 2015.
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