|Scientific Name:||Pernis ptilorhynchus|
|Species Authority:||(Temminck, 1821)|
Pernis ptilorynchus ptilorynchus Christidis and Boles (2008)
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Pernis ptilorhynchus (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously listed as P. ptilorhyncus.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S. & Ashpole, J|
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (extent of occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over 10 years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in 10 years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:||
Native:Bangladesh; Bhutan; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; China; India; Indonesia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Japan; Kazakhstan; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Kuwait; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia; Maldives; Myanmar; Nepal; Pakistan; Philippines; Russian Federation; Singapore; Sri Lanka; Taiwan, Province of China; Tajikistan; Thailand; Timor-Leste; United Arab Emirates; Viet Nam
Vagrant:Egypt; Hong Kong; Israel; Jordan; Macao; Mongolia; Oman; Saudi Arabia; Turkey; Uzbekistan; Yemen
Present - origin uncertain:Afghanistan
|Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No|
|Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||7990000|
|Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|Upper elevation limit (metres):||1800|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The global population is estimated to number c.100,000-1,000,000 individuals (Ferguson-Lees et al. 2001), while national population estimates include: c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in China; < c.100 breeding pairs, c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Taiwan; c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Korea; c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Japan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).
Trend Justification: The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats.
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Behaviour Birds in the northern part of its range are migratory, arriving at breeding grounds in April and May and leaving again between August and October. Further south the species is sedentary (del Hoyo et al. 1994). It migrates by flapping as well as soaring, enabling it to cross expanses of water. Small groups generally form on migration, but otherwise the species is generally seen singly or in pairs (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). Habitat It inhabits woodland of various climatic types, preferring broad-leaved forests; it is recorded up to 1,800 m (del Hoyo et al. 1994). Diet Bees and wasps (usually larvae) form the main part of its diet (del Hoyo et al. 1994). Breeding site The nest is built in the fork of a tree (del Hoyo et al. 1994). Management information The species requires forest, although not necessarily old growth: it has been recorded to move back into irrigated forest plantations in Pakistan (del Hoyo et al. 1994).
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||11.8|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Congregatory:||Congregatory (and dispersive)|
It is very highly vulnerable to the effects of potential wind energy development (Strix 2012).
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2015. Pernis ptilorhynchus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T22694995A79926664. . Downloaded on 28 May 2016.|
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