Pernis apivorus 

Scope: Global

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Accipitriformes Accipitridae

Scientific Name: Pernis apivorus
Species Authority: (Linnaeus, 1758)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English European Honey-buzzard, Honey Buzzard, European Honey Buzzard
French Bondrée apivore
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2013-11-03
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Khwaja, N. & Ashpole, J
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (extent of occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over 10 years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in 10 years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Countries occurrence:
Albania; Algeria; Andorra; Angola (Angola); Armenia (Armenia); Austria; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Belarus; Belgium; Benin; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Botswana; Bulgaria; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Chad; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Croatia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Djibouti; Egypt; Equatorial Guinea; Eritrea; Estonia; Ethiopia; Finland; France; Gabon; Gambia; Georgia; Germany; Ghana; Gibraltar; Greece; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Hungary; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Italy; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kuwait; Latvia; Lebanon; Liberia; Libya; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Malawi; Mali; Malta; Mauritania; Moldova; Montenegro; Morocco; Mozambique; Namibia; Netherlands; Niger; Nigeria; Norway; Oman; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Poland; Portugal; Qatar; Romania; Russian Federation; Rwanda; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Serbia (Serbia); Sierra Leone; Slovakia; Slovenia; South Africa; South Sudan; Spain (Canary Is. - Vagrant); Sudan; Sweden; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Tanzania, United Republic of; Togo; Tunisia; Turkey; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; Western Sahara; Yemen; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Burkina Faso; Burundi; Faroe Islands; Iceland; Ireland; Seychelles; Somalia; Swaziland; Uzbekistan
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:8990000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Upper elevation limit (metres):2000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Ferguson-Lees et al. (2001) estimated the population to number 100,000-1,000,000 individuals. In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 118,000-171,000 breeding pairs, equating to 235,000-342,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 82% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 287,000-417,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. Hence a revised global estimate is 280,000-420,000 mature individuals.

Trend Justification:  The population is suspected to be decreasing. In Europe the population size is estimated to be decreasing by less than 25% in 35.4 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:280000-420000Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Behaviour This is a migratory species, wintering in in tropical Africa. It leaves its breeding grounds in August and September, returning between April and June (del Hoyo et al. 1994). Birds are mostly solitary except on migration, when they flock throughout, gathering in large numbers at preferred crossing points as well as roosting socially (del Hoyo et al. 1994, Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001, Porter and Aspinall 2010). They fly chiefly by soaring, although are able to cross wide stretches of water with flapping flight (Snow and Perrins 1998, Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). The species is diurnal (Snow and Perrins 1998) Habitat It is a forest species, breeding in temperate and boreal woods; it is recorded up to 2,000 m (del Hoyo et al. 1994). Diet It feeds mainly on wasps and hornets, also being noted to take flying termites and locusts in Africa (del Hoyo et al. 1994). Breeding site Nests are built in woods, preferentially in deciduous trees (del Hoyo et al. 1994). Management information The species appears to require dense forest on its wintering grounds in Africa (del Hoyo et al. 1994).
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Generation Length (years):11.8
Movement patterns:Full Migrant
Congregatory:Congregatory (and dispersive)

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Many birds are shot on migration, notably in Italy, Malta and Lebanon (del Hoyo et al. 1994, Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). Population declines in northern Europe have resulted from deforestation, forest conversion and shooting. Human disturbance is also a threat. Although pesticide use has not had significant impacts in Europe (due to the species living in woodland and feeding on wasps), it may do in Africa, where there are fewer restrictions on usage and the species may be poisoned through its locust prey (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). It is very highly vulnerable to the effects of potential wind energy development (Strix 2012).

Citation: BirdLife International. 2015. Pernis apivorus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T22694989A80089296. . Downloaded on 28 October 2016.
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