|Scientific Name:||Aviceda cuculoides|
|Species Authority:||Swainson, 1837|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Harding, M. & Ashpole, J|
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (extent of occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size may be moderately small to large, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:||
Native:Angola (Angola); Benin; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Chad; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Equatorial Guinea; Ethiopia; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Kenya; Liberia; Malawi; Mali; Mozambique; Namibia; Nigeria; Rwanda; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Somalia; South Africa; Sudan; Swaziland; Tanzania, United Republic of; Togo; Uganda; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Present - origin uncertain:South Sudan
|Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No|
|Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||10600000|
|Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|Upper elevation limit (metres):||3000|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Population size likely to exceed 10,000 individuals (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001).
Trend Justification: The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats.
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Behaviour This widely distributed afrotropical species is largely permanently resident, but a proportion will make some seasonal movements. During April-November some individuals migrate northwards to East Africa, particularly coastal Kenya (del Hoyo et al., 1994) and during the non-breeding season (May-August) some will migrate down into Southern Africa (Ferguson-Lees and Christie, 2001), particularly the Transvaal highveld (del Hoyo et al., 1994). The species is also occasionally found in south-east Ethiopia (Brown et al., 1982). The breeding season varies by locality; in southern Africa it occurs during September-March; in West Africa it is during June-August; in Kenya it is during both March-June and November –February, following the onset of the rains (Brown, et al., 1982; del Hoyo et al., 1994; Ferguson-Lees and Christie, 2001). Its general behaviour is largely unknown, probably as a result of its low local densities and secretive habits (Brown et al., 1982). However, during migration individuals become slightly more conspicuous and thus may appear more numerous (Ferguson-Lees and Christie, 2001). Habitat This reticent species occupies the interior and edges of evergreen forest and deciduous woodlands, including suburban gardens and more open savannas, up to 3000m (Brown, et al., 1982; del Hoyo et al., 1994; Ferguson-Lees and Christie, 2001). During migration through East Africa it also occupies drier woodland and bush (Ferguson-Lees and Christie, 2001). Diet The species feeds mainly on insects, reptiles and small birds (Brown et al., 1982). It mostly still-hunts from a perch, although it is known to hawk for flying insects and to actively search for prey (Ferguson-Lees and Christie, 2001). Breeding Site Constructs small slight nests high in trees, including eucalyptus (Brown et al., 1982; Ferguson- Lees and Christie, 2001). Management Information The species utilises interior forest, but is also observed in secondary growth and open edge habitats. It is affected by the loss of forest habitat and is predated by larger raptors. There are no records of it being affected by pesticides (del Hoyo et al., 1994).
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||7.6|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
It is affected by the loss of forest habitat and can be predated by larger raptors (del Hoyo et al., 1994). In South Africa it has been known to drown in small reservoirs on farmland (Anderson et al. 1999).
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2015. Aviceda cuculoides. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T22694944A79914511. . Downloaded on 09 February 2016.|
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