|Scientific Name:||Pandion haliaetus (Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Pandion haliaetus (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993; Christidis and Boles 1994) was split into P. haliaetus and P. cristatus by Christidis and Boles (2008) but this treatment is not followed by the BirdLife Taxonomic Working Group (BTWG) because the authors base their treatment on molecular analyses published by M. Wink outside the peer-reviewed literature; the BTWG adopts the view of Edwards et al. (2005) that intrageneric genetic differentiation alone is an unsatisfactory basis for species recognition and prefer to wait for further validation before accepting this proposed split.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern (Regional assessment) ver 3.1|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Ashpole, J, Burfield, I., Ieronymidou, C., Pople, R., Wheatley, H. & Wright, L|
European regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)
EU27 regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)
In Europe this species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence 10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (30% decline over ten years or three generations). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern in Europe.
Within the EU27 this species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence 10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (30% decline over ten years or three generations). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern in the EU27.
Native:Albania; Armenia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Georgia; Germany; Gibraltar; Greece; Hungary; Ireland; Italy; Latvia; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Malta; Moldova; Montenegro; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Russian Federation (European Russia); Serbia; Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain (Canary Is.); Sweden; Switzerland; Turkey; Ukraine; United Kingdom
Vagrant:Faroe Islands; Greenland; Iceland
|Population:||The European population is estimated at 8,400-12,300 pairs, which equates to 16,700-24,600 mature individuals. The population in the EU27 is estimated at 5,800-7,500 pairs, which equates to 11,600-15,000 mature individuals. For details of national estimates, see the Supplementary Material.|
Trend Justification: In Europe and the EU27 the population size is estimated to be increasing. For details of national estimates, see attached PDF.
|Current Population Trend:||Increasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:|
It inhabits the areas around shallow waters, being sufficiently tolerant of human settlement to persist in suburban and sometimes urban environments. It breeds from late May to early September and most pairs are monogamous but polygynous trios form where males can easily defend two nests. The nest is a large collection of sticks and flotsam, lined with grasses and moss where available, usually wedged high (up to 30 m above the ground) in an exposed tree or will also nest on cliff. Clutches are from one to four eggs. Its diet almost entirely consists of live fish (Poole et al. 2014). The species migrates on broad fronts and is not dependent on land bridges during migration (Snow and Perrins 1998, Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). Migrants begin moving to lower latitudes in August and arrive by October, returning in March and April (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001).
|Systems:||Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||11.6|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Congregatory:||Congregatory (and dispersive)|
|Major Threat(s):||Human persecution was the main historical threat, prevalent from the 18th–20th centuries (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). A combination of deforestation and the collection of eggs and live birds drove the species extinct in Azerbaijan (Poole et al. 2014). Numbers fell from 1950–1970 as a result of pesticide use, although they are now recovering. Pesticide use has now been reduced to a minor threat. In Scotland the species had been extirpated by collection and hunting but is now recovering (Poole et al. 2014, Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001), but shooting still affects many birds on migration in the Mediterranean, notably in Malta. It is very highly vulnerable to the effects of potential wind energy development (Strix 2012).|
Conservation Actions Underway
EU Birds Directive Annex I. CMS Appendix II. Reintroduction has helped populations to recover across parts of its range and pesticide use has been reduced, as seen in the Fennoscandian population which increased after a reduction in pollutants (mainly organochlorides and mercury) (Poole et al. 2014).
Conservation Actions Proposed
Disturbance during the breeding season can be reduced by establishing protective zones 200–300 m wide around the nest. This, along with nest wardening, rebuilding of damaged nests and the provision of artificial nests in safe locations where necessary, would also assist breeding success. The spread of pollutants should be reduced. Fish-farms visited by migrating birds should use equipment to scare birds and prevent access to fish stocks rather than shoot them (Tucker and Heath 1994).
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2015. Pandion haliaetus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T22694938A60111145.Downloaded on 19 February 2018.|
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