Fratercula corniculata 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Charadriiformes Alcidae

Scientific Name: Fratercula corniculata
Species Authority: (Naumann, 1821)
Common Name(s):
English Horned Puffin
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Calvert, R., Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S.
This species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2009 Least Concern (LC)
2008 Least Concern (LC)
2004 Least Concern (LC)
2000 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1994 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1988 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: The Horned Puffin can be found in the northern Pacific Ocean, from the coast of Japan and south-west Canada in the south, up to and including the Chukchi Sea in the north. It breeds on most of the islands and coasts in this area, up to the north of its range on Wrangel Island, Russia, but can only be found breeding as far south as the Queen Charlotte Islands (Canada) and Sakhalinsk (Russia) (del Hoyo et al. 1996).
Countries occurrence:
Canada; Japan; Russian Federation; United States
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 1410000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The global population is estimated to number > c.1,200,000 individuals (del Hoyo et al. 1996), while the population in Russia has been estimated at c.100-100,000 breeding pairs and c.50-10,000 wintering individuals (Brazil 2009).

Trend Justification:  The population is suspected to be in decline owing to predation by invasive species and ongoing habitat destruction.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This marine species can be found along sea coasts on rocky cliffs and offshore islands during breeding, and ranging over adjacent waters usually only to the edge of the continental shelf during non-breeding periods. Its diet is comprised mainly of a wide diversity of fish, supplemented with a significant proportion of squid, crustaceans and polychaetes. Chick diet is primarily the high fat and calorific sandeels and capelin. It obtains most prey by pursuit-diving. Individuals arive at colonies on rocky cliffs, boulder areas and talus slopes in spring, with the start of breeding being variable depending on locality. It is a colonial species with aggregations of varying sizes (del Hoyo et al. 1996).
Systems: Terrestrial; Marine
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Unknown
Generation Length (years): 21.6
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant
Congregatory: Congregatory (and dispersive)

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Fratercula corniculata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22694931A38910630. . Downloaded on 26 November 2015.
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