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Synthliboramphus craveri

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA AVES CHARADRIIFORMES ALCIDAE

Scientific Name: Synthliboramphus craveri
Species Authority: (Salvadori, 1865)
Common Name(s):
English Craveri's Murrelet
Synonym(s):
Brachyramphus craveri craveri Collar and Andrew (1988)
Brachyramphus craveri craveri Stotz et al. (1996)

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B2ab(iii,v);C2a(ii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Verlarde, E., Tershy, B. & Anderson, D.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Gilroy, J.
Justification:
This species has a small breeding range and population which nests at a small number of known locations. The presence of introduced predators on most known and potential breeding islands suggests that numbers are likely to be declining significantly. It consequently qualifies as Vulnerable.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Synthliboramphus craveri has an estimated c.5,000 breeding pairs, scattered throughout the Gulf of California, Mexico (Everett and Anderson 1991). It breeds on Islas Partida, Tiburón, San Jorge, San Esteban, Estanque, San Pedro Mártir, San Pedro Nolasco, San Francisco, Espíritu Santo and San Ildefonso, and possibly on the Pacific coast of Baja California, north to Islas San Benitos (DeWeese and Anderson 1976, Everett and Anderson 1991, Velarde and Anderson 1994, E. Velarde in litt. 1998). The population, with pre-breeders, is probably 15,000-20,000 birds (Gaston and Jones 1998), which is similar to an at-sea survey estimate of c.22,000 birds (Pitman et al. 1995). It winters in the Gulf of California and along coasts to south California, USA, and Sonora, Mexico, and possibly Guatemala (DeWeese and Anderson 1976, Tershy et al. 1993).

Countries:
Native:
Mexico; United States
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population is estimated to number 9,000-15,000 individuals, roughly equating to 6,000-10,000 mature individuals.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Two eggs are usually laid on bare rock or soft substrate at the end of a rock-cavity or crevice, but also in ground-burrows, under dense shrubs and boulders (DeWeese and Anderson 1976, Gaston and Jones 1998). Nesting success varies from 12-79%, but chick survival during the first month at sea is only 30-35% (DeWeese and Anderson 1976). It feeds mainly on larval fish, especially rockfish Sebastes, herring (Clupeidae) and lanternfish Benthosema panamense (DeWeese and Anderson 1976).

Systems: Terrestrial; Marine

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Cats and rats are probably the greatest threat, presumably predating both adults and nests on several breeding islands (DeWeese and Anderson 1976). Deer mice may also pose a threat on some islands. Oil spills from the tanker lane stretching from the Gulf of California to Puerto Libertad could threaten a large percentage of breeding adults. Pollution from offshore oil-wells or the Los Angeles oil-tanker lane could also affect non-breeding adults in the south California Bight (Velarde and Anderson 1994). Further threats are drowning in drift gill-nets, nest-site disturbance and possibly organochlorine pollution (Velarde and Anderson 1994).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
A management plan and implementation strategy for the Gulf of California Special Biosphere Reserve were detailed in 1994 (Velarde and Anderson 1994), and work began in 1999 (D. W. Anderson in litt. 1999). Introduced mammals have been eradicated from a number of islands that are current, past or potential breeding sites (B. Tershy in litt. 1999, Tershy et al. 2002, B. Tershy in litt. 2007, Aguire et al. in press). Instructive signs have been placed on many of the islands and there is a general move towards increasing enforcement of existing regulations. At the same time, human use of the islands is increasing, much of it unregulated (B. Tershy in litt. 1999). Other measures include the development of management plans for all known breeding islands, environmental education, the erection of warning signposts on islands and increased enforcement of existing regulations (B. Tershy in litt. 1999).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Eradicate introduced predators on other small islands. Monitor all islands for new mammalian introductions. Develop strategies to remove predators from larger islands. Ensure the full implementation of the management plan. Estimate population sizes with precision. Monitor key populations. Assess the impact of gill-net fisheries (Everett and Anderson 1991). Regulate tourism on Baja California islands (Velarde and Anderson 1994).


Citation: BirdLife International 2012. Synthliboramphus craveri. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 22 December 2014.
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