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Cepphus carbo 

Scope:Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_onStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Charadriiformes Alcidae

Scientific Name: Cepphus carbo
Species Authority: Pallas, 1811
Common Name(s):
English Spectacled Guillemot
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Calvert, R.
Justification:
This species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2009 Least Concern (LC)
2008 Least Concern (LC)
2004 Least Concern (LC)
2000 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1994 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1988 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: The Spectacled Guillemot is found on coasts and islands of the north-west Pacific, breeding from the Kamchatkan Peninsula, Russia and Sea of Okhotsk to the north-east North Korea, including the Kuril Islands, and Hokkaido, Japan, wintering near breeding locations and beyond the southern tip of Japan (del Hoyo et al. 1996).
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Japan; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Russian Federation
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 2740000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The global population is estimated to number c.140,000-148,000 individuals (del Hoyo et al. 1996), while national population sizes have been estimated at < c.100 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.100-100,000 breeding pairs and c.50-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).

Trend Justification:  The population is suspected to be in decline owing to predation by invasive species and food shortages caused by the depletion of fisheries (del Hoyo et al. 1996).
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This exclusively marine species is found near-shore whilst breeding and over both pelagic waters and along coasts during the winter. It feeds largely on fish with a few invertebrates, usually catching prey close to breeding colonies. Its breeding season probably begins between April and May, nesting either as a single pair, in groups of 10-20 pairs and rarely in colonies of 200-300 pairs. It lays in cliff crevices, in holes and cavities in scree slopes and boulder fields or in more accessible sites on predator-free islands. Individuals are resident and mostly sedentary, remaining in the vicinity of the colonies except in the north of its range (del Hoyo et al. 1996).
Systems: Terrestrial; Marine
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Unknown
Generation Length (years): 9.2
Movement patterns: Full Migrant
Congregatory: Congregatory (and dispersive)

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Cepphus carbo. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22694867A38893083. . Downloaded on 28 June 2016.
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