|Scientific Name:||Chlidonias niger|
|Species Authority:||(Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Ashpole, J, Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Malpas, L.|
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||This species is found in the Old and New World. It ranges from southern Scandinavia to southern Spain, east through Europe and western Asia to central Mongolia. Individuals from this area predominately winter on the Atlantic coast of Africa, from the Western Sahara to South Africa. It is also found across much of Canada to northern regions of the U.S.A., with individuals wintering on the Pacific coast of Mexico, the Pacific and Atlantic coast of Central America and northern South America (del Hoyo et al. 1996).|
Native:Albania; Algeria; Angola (Angola); Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Argentina; Armenia (Armenia); Aruba; Austria; Azerbaijan; Bahamas; Barbados; Belarus; Belgium; Belize; Benin; Bermuda; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Brazil; Bulgaria; Cameroon; Canada; Cayman Islands; Chile; China; Colombia; Congo; Costa Rica; Côte d'Ivoire; Croatia; Cuba; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Djibouti; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; Egypt; El Salvador; Equatorial Guinea; Eritrea; Estonia; Ethiopia; Finland; France; French Guiana; Gabon; Gambia; Georgia; Germany; Ghana; Gibraltar; Greece; Guatemala; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; Hungary; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Jamaica; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Latvia; Liberia; Libya; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Mali; Malta; Martinique; Mauritania; Mexico; Moldova; Mongolia; Montenegro; Montserrat; Morocco; Namibia; Netherlands; Nicaragua; Nigeria; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Panama; Peru; Poland; Portugal; Puerto Rico; Romania; Russian Federation; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Pierre and Miquelon; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Senegal; Serbia (Serbia); Sierra Leone; Slovakia; Slovenia; South Africa; Spain; Sri Lanka; Suriname; Sweden; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Tajikistan; Tanzania, United Republic of; Togo; Trinidad and Tobago; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Turks and Caicos Islands; Ukraine; United Kingdom; United States (Georgia); Uzbekistan; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Western Sahara
Vagrant:Afghanistan; Australia; Bahrain; Chad; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Iceland; Iraq; Japan; Kenya; Kuwait; Lebanon; Madagascar; Niger; Oman; Rwanda; Saudi Arabia; Somalia; Sudan; United Arab Emirates; Uruguay; Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S.; Yemen
Present - origin uncertain:Sao Tomé and Principe
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The global population is estimated at 800,000-1,750,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 74,400-154,000 pairs, which equates to 149,000-308,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).|
Trend Justification: The overall population trend is declining (Wetlands International 2015). This species has undergone a small or statistically insignificant decrease over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). The European population trend is unknown (BirdLife International 2015).
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Behaviour This species is strongly migratory (del Hoyo et al. 1996) and travels both over land and over sea (Snow and Perrins 1998). It breeds between May and June (del Hoyo et al. 1996) in colonies, usually of less than 20 pairs (rarely more than 100 pairs) (del Hoyo et al. 1996) and often close to other species (Flint et al. 1984, Snow and Perrins 1998). After breeding it departs for its wintering grounds from July onwards (Richards 1990), returning north again from late-March (Snow and Perrins 1998). The species is gregarious throughout the year (Snow and Perrins 1998), foraging in groups of 2-20 during the breeding season and congregating in large flocks offshore on passage and in the winter over shoals of predatory fish (Richards 1990, del Hoyo et al. 1996, Snow and Perrins 1998). Habitat Breeding The species breeds on fresh or brackish wetlands (Richards 1990) such as small pools, lakes, marshes (Richards 1990, del Hoyo et al. 1996), ditches, overgrown canals, quiet reaches of rivers, swampy meadows (Richards 1990), peat bogs and rice-fields (del Hoyo et al. 1996), showing a preference for well-vegetated areas (del Hoyo et al. 1996) with sparse, open emergent vegetation (del Hoyo et al. 1996) (e.g. Typha spp., sedge or reeds) (Flint et al. 1984) and floating water-lilies (del Hoyo et al. 1996), and with water 1-2 m deep (del Hoyo et al. 1996). It generally avoids small marshland areas less than 4 ha in area (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Non-breeding On passage the species frequents inland wetlands including pools, ditches (del Hoyo et al. 1996), reservoirs, lakes and sewage farms (Snow and Perrins 1998), as well as coastal habitats and estuaries (del Hoyo et al. 1996). In winter it is predominantly coastal however, frequenting estuaries (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Snow and Perrins 1998), saltmarshes, bays (Snow and Perrins 1998), coastlines and coastal lagoons (del Hoyo et al. 1996) as well as marine waters up to 400-600 km offshore (Urban et al. 1986). Diet Breeding Its breeding diet consists predominantly of insects (e.g. chironomids, Odonata, Ephemeroptera and Coleoptera) as well as small fish (del Hoyo et al. 1996) and amphibians (Snow and Perrins 1998) (e.g. tadpoles and frogs) (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Non-breeding On passage and during the winter the species's diet consists largely of marine fish although insects and crustaceans may also be taken (Snow and Perrins 1998). Breeding site The nest may be a low compressed mound of plant matter (Flint et al. 1984, Snow and Perrins 1998) placed in very shallow water (Snow and Perrins 1998) or on a floating mat of aquatic vegetation (Flint et al. 1984) over water more than 50 cm deep (del Hoyo et al. 1996). The nest may also be a shallow scrape (Snow and Perrins 1998) on the ground amongst marsh vegetation (Snow and Perrins 1998). The species breeds in small colonies and may forage up to 2-5 km from breeding sites (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Management information In the Netherlands the provision of anchored artificial nesting rafts has been partly successful as a conservation measure (van der Winden et al. 2004, 2005), especially in habitats where unstable nest substrates (such as floating water-lilies) result in poor breeding successes (van der Winden et al. 2004). In the Netherlands there have also been successful programmes to reduce disturbance and improve habitat quality in agricultural areas, which has benefited the species (van der Winden 2005). The application of glyphosphate-based herbicides to combat and prevent the overgrowth of Typha spp. in wetlands may also benefit the species (Linz and Blixt 1997).|
|Systems:||Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||8.8|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Congregatory:||Congregatory (and dispersive)|
|Major Threat(s):||On its breeding grounds the species is threatened by reductions in food availability due to the eutrophication of surface waters (which reduces the diversity of large insects) (Beintema 1997), the acidification of lakes (which leads to the death of fish) (Beintema 1997), the introduction of exotic fish species (e.g. peacock bass Cichla ocellaris) (del Hoyo et al. 1996) and pesticide pollution (which may also lead to direct mortality from poisoning) (del Hoyo et al. 1996). When breeding the species is also threatened by fluctuating water levels (Snow and Perrins 1998), the loss and deterioration of freshwater nesting habitats (del Hoyo et al. 1996, van der Winden 2005) (e.g. through drainage for agriculture (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Snow and Perrins 1998) and overgrowth of Typha spp. beds [del Hoyo et al. 1996, Linz and Blixt 1997]), and human disturbance (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Snow and Perrins 1998, van der Winden 2005) (especially where this forces breeding pairs to leave the nest before the young are fully fledged) (van der Winden 2002). The species is also susceptible to avian influenza so may be threatened by future outbreaks of the virus (Melville and Shortridge 2006). Nests may be lost through storms and wave action (Gochfeld and Burger 1996). The intensification of fish farming has resulted on encroachment on water bodies, which has reduced the extent of floating vegetation and it suffers competition from other species (e.g. gulls, ducks or swans) which may be exacerbated by other threats (Tucker and Heath 1994). The species is also susceptible to avian influenza so may be threatened by future outbreaks of the virus (Melville and Shortridge 2006).|
Conservation Actions Underway
The following information refers to the species's European range only: The following information refers to the species's European range only: Bern Convention Appendix II. CMS Appendix II. The species has been included as a target species in two EU LIFE Projects. In the Netherlands the provision of anchored artificial nesting rafts has been partly successful as a conservation measure (van der Winden et al. 2004, 2005), especially in habitats where unstable nest substrates (such as floating water-lilies) result in poor breeding successes (van der Winden et al. 2004). In the Netherlands there have also been successful programmes to reduce disturbance and improve habitat quality in agricultural areas, which has benefited the species (van der Winden 2002).
Conservation Actions Proposed
The following information refers to the species's European range only: The application of glyphosate-based herbicides to combat and prevent the overgrowth of Typha spp. in wetlands may also benefit the species (Linz and Blixt 1997).
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2016. Chlidonias niger. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22694787A86776862.Downloaded on 22 January 2017.|
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