|Scientific Name:||Rhodostethia rosea (MacGillivray, 1824)|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Ashpole, J, Butchart, S., Calvert, R., Ekstrom, J., Malpas, L.|
This species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend is not known, but the population is not believed to be decreasing sufficiently rapidly to approach the thresholds under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size may be moderately small to large, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||This species breeds in the high Arctic of North America and Siberia. It is found in north-east Siberia, Russia, from the Taymyr Peninsula to the Kolyma River, locally in Greenland (to Denmark) and irregularly in Canada. Its wintering range in Siberia expands further west and east down to the tip of the Kamchatkan Peninsula, with other wintering sites including the north coast of Alaska (USA) and the south-eastern coast of Greenland (del Hoyo et al. 1996).|
Native:Canada; China; Greenland; Japan; Russian Federation (Central Asian Russia - Vagrant, Eastern Asian Russia); United States
Vagrant:Belgium; Denmark; Faroe Islands; Finland; France; Germany; Iceland; Ireland; Italy; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Svalbard and Jan Mayen; Sweden; United Kingdom
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The global population is estimated to number c.25,000-100,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2016). At least 20,000 (up to 38,000) individuals move past Point Barrow, Alaska in autumn (Maftei et al. 2014). The population in Russia has been estimated at c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration (Brazil 2009). The population in Greenland is estimated at 0-5 pairs (BirdLife International 2015).|
Trend Justification: The population trend is difficult to determine because of uncertainty over the extent of threats to the species (del Hoyo et al. 1996).
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Behaviour This species is migratory (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Snow and Perrins 1998) and travels north after breeding to overwinter in the Arctic Ocean (Snow and Perrins 1998). It arrives on its breeding grounds in late-May where it breeds from early-June in loose colonies of 2-10 pairs (rarely up to 18 pairs) (del Hoyo et al. 1996) often with other species (e.g. Arctic Tern Sterna paradisaea) (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Snow and Perrins 1998). The departure from the breeding grounds occurs from late-July onwards with the species migrating in small flocks of 2-16 individuals (del Hoyo et al. 1996). It forages solitarily or in small loose flocks (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Habitat Breeding The species breeds in the upper boreal forest (taiga) and tundra (del Hoyo et al. 1996) zones of the high Arctic (Olsen and Larsson 2003), showing a preference for nesting on small, low islets in shallow pools (created by snow-melt on tundra underlain with permafrost) (Snow and Perrins 1998) surrounded by stands of stunted alder Alnus spp. and willow Salix spp. (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Snow and Perrins 1998) and by muddy, boggy or marshy (Richards 1990, del Hoyo et al. 1996, Snow and Perrins 1998, Olsen and Larsson 2003) ground with sedges and moss (Snow and Perrins 1998). The species also breeds on marshy tundra in high Arctic river deltas (del Hoyo et al. 1996) and on marshy ground in well-wooded river valleys (Richards 1990). Non-breeding Outside of the breeding season the species forages pelagically on the open sea or along the edges of pack-ice (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Diet Breeding On its breeding grounds the species is chiefly insectivorous (del Hoyo et al. 1996), its diet including Coleoptera and dipteran flies (Richards 1990). Non-breeding On migration and in the winter its diet consists of small fish and surface-dwelling marine invertebrates (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Snow and Perrins 1998) (including plankton, crustaceans, molluscs and priapulid marine worms) (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Breeding site The nest is constructed of dry grass, sedge and moss (del Hoyo et al. 1996), usually on a tussock on an island in a pool in tundra or forest (del Hoyo et al. 1996). The species nests in near invisible colonies, often with other species, with an average distance between neighbouring nests of 43 m (del Hoyo et al. 1996).|
|Systems:||Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||9.8|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Congregatory:||Congregatory (and dispersive)|
|Major Threat(s):||The species is potentially threatened by the development of oil extraction in the Beaufort Sea, and also suffers from nest failures as a result of human disturbance in Canada (Burger et al. 2016). The species is shot whilst on passage by native Alaskan peoples for food (Burger et al. 2016).|
Conservation Actions Underway
Listed under the African Eurasian Waterbird Agreement.
Conservation Actions Proposed
Identification of Important Bird Areas in Arctic, including for sites at sea, and subsequent designation as marine protected areas. Carry out surveys to determine robust estimate of global population.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2016. Rhodostethia rosea. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22694476A89670438.Downloaded on 18 January 2018.|
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