||Larus pipixcan Wagler, 1831
||Mouette de Franklin
Leucophaeus pipixcan pipixcan Christidis and Boles (2008)
||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
||Ekstrom, J., Calvert, R., Harding, M., Fisher, S., Butchart, S.
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2012 – Least Concern (LC)
- 2009 – Least Concern (LC)
- 2008 – Least Concern (LC)
- 2004 – Least Concern (LC)
- 2000 – Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
- 1994 – Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
- 1988 – Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
|Range Description:||This species breeds in the northern USA and central-west Canada, migrates south through Central America and winters off the west coast southern Mexico, Central America and of South America, where it is particularly common from Ecuador to Chile1.
Argentina; Aruba; Belize; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil; Canada; Chile; Colombia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; El Salvador; Falkland Islands (Malvinas); French Guiana; Guatemala; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama; Paraguay; Peru; Puerto Rico; United States; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
Australia; Barbados; Belgium; Bermuda; Cuba; Dominican Republic; Faroe Islands; France; French Polynesia; Gambia; Germany; Guadeloupe; Haiti; Iceland; Ireland; Japan; Kiribati; Marshall Islands; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Morocco; Mozambique; Namibia; Netherlands; Norway; Portugal; Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Saint Pierre and Miquelon; Senegal; South Africa; South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; Spain; Sweden; Trinidad and Tobago; United Kingdom; United States Minor Outlying Islands; Zambia
|♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||2910000|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|♦ Upper elevation limit (metres):||2500|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|