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Larus pipixcan

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA AVES CHARADRIIFORMES LARIDAE

Scientific Name: Larus pipixcan
Species Authority: Wagler, 1831
Common Name(s):
English Franklin's Gull
French Mouette de Franklin
Synonym(s):
Leucophaeus pipixcan pipixcan Christidis and Boles (2008)

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Harding, M., Fisher, S., Calvert, R.
Justification:
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species breeds in the northern USA and central-west Canada, migrates south through Central America and winters off the west coast southern Mexico, Central America and of South America, where it is particularly common from Ecuador to Chile1.
Countries:
Native:
Argentina; Aruba; Belize; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil; Canada; Chile; Colombia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; El Salvador; Falkland Islands (Malvinas); French Guiana; Guatemala; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama; Paraguay; Peru; Puerto Rico; United States; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
Vagrant:
Australia; Barbados; Belgium; Bermuda; Cuba; Dominican Republic; Faroe Islands; France; French Polynesia; Gambia; Germany; Guadeloupe; Haiti; Iceland; Ireland; Japan; Kiribati; Marshall Islands; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Morocco; Mozambique; Namibia; Netherlands; Norway; Portugal; Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Saint Pierre and Miquelon; Senegal; South Africa; South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; Spain; Sweden; Trinidad and Tobago; United Kingdom; United States Minor Outlying Islands; Zambia
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population Trend: Increasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species can be found on coasts, lakes, marshes, field and rubbish dumps. It feeds almost exclusively on earthworms or emerging chironomids, but also aquatic invertebrates, grasshoppers and incidental small rodents and small fish. Early arrivals to colonies may depend on grain or sunflower seeds before insects become available. In winter small fish make up an important part of the diet, as do fish offal and refuse. Breeding is highly synchronous, with individuals arriving at colonies in mid-April and laying in mid- to late May. It is a highly gregarious species, forming colonies from 100's to over 10'000 pairs at inland lands and marshes, with nesting requiring emergent vegetation (del Hoyo et al. 1996).
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The species is sensitive to human disturbance early in its breeding cycle and during hatching, when it may desert colonies. Individual colonies are vulnerable to vagaries of local water levels, and draining of marshes or drought can eliminate colonies completely (del Hoyo et al. 1996).

Citation: BirdLife International 2012. Larus pipixcan. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 19 December 2014.
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