Larus pipixcan 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Charadriiformes Laridae

Scientific Name: Larus pipixcan Wagler, 1831
Common Name(s):
English Franklin's Gull
French Mouette de Franklin
Leucophaeus pipixcan pipixcan Christidis and Boles (2008)
Taxonomic Source(s): SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ekstrom, J., Calvert, R., Butchart, S., Harding, M., Fisher, S.
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species breeds in the northern USA and central-west Canada, migrates south through Central America and winters off the west coast southern Mexico, Central America and of South America, where it is particularly common from Ecuador to Chile1.

Countries occurrence:
Argentina; Aruba; Belize; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil; Canada; Chile; Colombia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; El Salvador; Falkland Islands (Malvinas); French Guiana; Guatemala; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama; Paraguay; Peru; Puerto Rico; United States; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
Australia; Barbados; Belgium; Bermuda; Cuba; Dominican Republic; Faroe Islands; France; French Polynesia; Gambia; Germany; Guadeloupe; Haiti; Iceland; Ireland; Japan; Kiribati; Marshall Islands; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Morocco; Mozambique; Namibia; Netherlands; Norway; Portugal; Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Saint Pierre and Miquelon; Senegal; South Africa; South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; Spain; Sweden; Trinidad and Tobago; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United States Minor Outlying Islands; Zambia
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:2910000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Upper elevation limit (metres):2500
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Current Population Trend:Increasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species can be found on coasts, lakes, marshes, field and rubbish dumps. It feeds almost exclusively on earthworms or emerging chironomids, but also aquatic invertebrates, grasshoppers and incidental small rodents and small fish. Early arrivals to colonies may depend on grain or sunflower seeds before insects become available. In winter small fish make up an important part of the diet, as do fish offal and refuse. Breeding is highly synchronous, with individuals arriving at colonies in mid-April and laying in mid- to late May. It is a highly gregarious species, forming colonies from 100's to over 10'000 pairs at inland lands and marshes, with nesting requiring emergent vegetation (del Hoyo et al. 1996).
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Generation Length (years):10.5
Movement patterns:Full Migrant
Congregatory:Congregatory (and dispersive)

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The species is sensitive to human disturbance early in its breeding cycle and during hatching, when it may desert colonies. Individual colonies are vulnerable to vagaries of local water levels, and draining of marshes or drought can eliminate colonies completely (del Hoyo et al. 1996).

Amended [top]

Amended reason: Added a country of occurrence.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2017. Larus pipixcan (amended version of assessment). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T22694462A119297773. . Downloaded on 23 May 2018.
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