Larus novaehollandiae


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Larus novaehollandiae
Species Authority: Stephens, 1826
Common Name/s:
English Silver Gull
Chroicocephalus novaehollandiae novaehollandiae Christidis and Boles (2008)
Taxonomic Notes: Larus novaehollandiae and L. hartlaubi, cross-regional species, and L. scopulinus, a New Zealand endemic (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993), are retained as separate species contra Turbott (1990) who include scopulinus and hartlaubi as subspecies of L. novaehollandiae, pending revision of the New Zealand CheckList.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor/s: BirdLife International
Reviewer/s: Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/s: Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Calvert, R.
This species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: The Silver Gull breeds on much of the coast of Australia except the central-north, on Tasmania, New Caledonia (to France). During winter its range expands to encompass the central-northern coast of Australia, and inland Tasmania, central, south-west and south-east Australia (del Hoyo et al. 1996).
Australia; New Caledonia
Fiji; Indonesia; Papua New Guinea; Vanuatu
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population Trend: Increasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species can be found at both coastal and inland locations in a variety of habitats including artificial habitats such as rubbish dumps. It has a very varied, opportunistic diet including fish, marine and terrestrial invertebrates, seeds, insects and bird eggs. Kleptoparasitism has been observed. It breeds on small islands and points, mainly offshore, but also on freshwater and brackish lakes, and on causeways in salt-pans. The breeding season covers all months, with the exact timing varying depending on locality and age. It is colonial and occasionally solitary, with smaller colonies in the tropics (3-25 pairs) up to 3000 pairs in southern Australia. Colony size depends on food availability. Individuals may wander widely outside the breeding season (del Hoyo et al. 1996).
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine
Citation: BirdLife International 2012. Larus novaehollandiae. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <>. Downloaded on 19 April 2014.
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