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Larus hartlaubii 

Scope: Global
Language: English
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_onStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Charadriiformes Laridae

Scientific Name: Larus hartlaubii Bruch, 1853
Common Name(s):
English Hartlaub's Gull, Hartlaub's Gull
French Mouette de Hartlaub
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Calvert, R., Malpas, L., Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J.
Justification:
This species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size may be moderately small to large, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:The King Gull is a non-migratory breeding resident endemic to the Atlantic Ocean coastline of South Africa and Namibia (del Hoyo et al. 1996).

Countries occurrence:
Native:
Namibia; South Africa
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:225000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Current Population Trend:Increasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Behaviour This species is predominantly sedentary (Urban et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996, Hockey et al. 2005) although it may disperse short distances along the coast outside of the breeding season (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Hockey et al. 2005). Information about the timing of breeding is conflicting, although it appears to vary geographically, with the species breeding in any month of the year in some areas (del Hoyo et al. 1996). The species breeds in colonies of 10-1,000 pairs (Urban et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996), frequently with Greater Crested Terns Sterna bergii and other colonial species (Urban et al. 1986, Williams et al. 1990, del Hoyo et al. 1996). It remains gregarious outside of the breeding season, occurring in large groups (e.g. of 60 [Hockey et al. 2005] to several hundred [Urban et al. 1986] individuals) that forage and roost together (Urban et al. 1986, Hockey et al. 2005). Habitat The species inhabits coastal areas (del Hoyo et al. 1996), and is rarely seen further than 20 km from land (Williams et al. 1990) (usually observed within 3 km [Urban et al. 1986]). Suitable habitats include shallow inshore waters (Urban et al. 1986), where water is less than 50 m deep, estuaries, lagoons (Hockey et al. 2005), intertidal zones, beaches (Urban et al. 1986) and harbours (Urban et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996), also occurring on land at refuse dumps (del Hoyo et al. 1996), abattoirs (Urban et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996) and sewage and salt works (Urban et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996). It breeds on low, flat, rocky offshore islands (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Hockey et al. 2005), and is strongly associated with kelp beds (a large part of its diet consists of invertebrates associated with stranded kelp [Williams et al. 1990]). Diet Its diet consists predominantly of marine invertebrates (del Hoyo et al. 1996) (e.g. kelp fly larvae, amphipods [Urban et al. 1986], molluscs and crustaceans [Hockey et al. 2005]), especially those associated with stranded kelp (Williams et al. 1990), as well as terrestrial insects (del Hoyo et al. 1996) (e.g. crickets, grasshoppers, beetles, moths and ants [Hockey et al. 2005]), small fish (del Hoyo et al. 1996), earthworms (Urban et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996), the fruits of low-growing shrubs (Hockey et al. 2005), offal and refuse (Urban et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996, Hockey et al. 2005). Breeding site The species breeds colonially, with nests spaced 1-2 m (Urban et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996). Suitable sites include low, flat, rocky offshore islands (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Hockey et al. 2005) and artificial structures (Hockey et al. 2005) such as dykes in sewage lagoons and saltpans (Urban et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996) and the roofs of buildings (Urban et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996), although it does show a preference for bare or slightly vegetated ground (Urban et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996) (e.g. with beach halophytes [Urban et al. 1986]), that are associated with sites of more substantial vegetation (Urban et al. 1986). The nest is a slight hollow (Urban et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996) or a woven structure of plant stems (Hockey et al. 2005) that is typically placed on rocky surfaces (Urban et al. 1986, Hockey et al. 2005) or occasionally in reedbeds (Hockey et al. 2005), or up to 20-50 cm high in densely-matted sclerophyllous shrubs (Urban et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996).

Systems:Terrestrial; Marine
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Generation Length (years):10.9
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant
Congregatory:Congregatory (and dispersive)

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The species is threatened by a high rate of breeding failure brought about by a number of man-made and natural causes (del Hoyo et al. 1996). For example storms (Williams et al. 1990) and changing water levels in artificial breeding sites (Blaker 1967) may flood colonies, and abnormally high sea-surface temperatures may reduce food availability and lower reproductive succes (Williams et al. 1990). Natural predators such as Kelp Gulls Larus dominicanus, African Sacred Ibises Threskiornis aethiopicus and Cattle Egrets Bubulcus ibis eat eggs, chicks and occasionally adults, and Greater Crested Terns Sterna bergii frequently displace incubating pairs, resulting in egg mortality (Williams et al. 1990, del Hoyo et al. 1996). Introduced predators on offshore islands such as mongooses (del Hoyo et al. 1996) (e.g. Galerella pulverulentus and yellow mongoose Cynictis penicillata [Williams et al. 1990]), domestic cat Felis catus (Williams et al. 1990, Hockey et al. 2005) and cape fox Vulpes chama (Williams et al. 1990) threaten breeding colonies (Williams et al. 1990, Hockey et al. 2005), and colonies near airports are often deliberately disturbed (by breaking eggs, collecting chicks and shooting adults) to reduce the threat of air strikes (Hockey et al. 2005). The species is also susceptible to avian botulism, so may be threatened by future outbreaks of the disease (Blaker 1967, Williams et al. 1990).


Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Larus hartlaubii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22694393A93451657. . Downloaded on 24 October 2017.
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