|Scientific Name:||Stercorarius longicaudus Vieillot, 1819|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Ashpole, J, Butchart, S., Calvert, R., Ekstrom, J.|
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||This species breeds in the high Arctic of Eurasia and North America, and has a circumpolar winter distribution in the Southern Oceans (del Hoyo et al. 1996).|
Native:Antigua and Barbuda; Argentina; Australia; Austria; Barbados; Belgium; Brazil; Canada; Chile; Colombia; Cuba; Czech Republic; Denmark; Dominica; Ecuador; Egypt; Falkland Islands (Malvinas); Faroe Islands; Finland; France; Greenland; Guatemala; Hungary; Iceland; Indonesia; Israel; Italy; Japan; Latvia; Malaysia; Martinique; Mexico; Montserrat; Netherlands; New Caledonia; Northern Mariana Islands; Norway; Palau; Peru; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation (Central Asian Russia, Eastern Asian Russia, European Russia); Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Pierre and Miquelon; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Solomon Islands; South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; Svalbard and Jan Mayen; Sweden; Switzerland; Thailand; United Kingdom; United States; Vanuatu
Vagrant:Angola; Aruba; Bahamas; Belarus; Belize; Bermuda; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Botswana; Bulgaria; Cape Verde; Cayman Islands; Costa Rica; Croatia; Dominican Republic; Fiji; Germany; Greece; Guadeloupe; Haiti; Hong Kong; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Ireland; Jamaica; Jordan; Kenya; Kuwait; Liberia; Malta; Mauritania; Montenegro; Morocco; Namibia; New Zealand; Nigeria; Oman; Panama; Portugal; Qatar; Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Senegal; Serbia; Slovakia; Slovenia; South Africa; Spain; Togo; Turkey; United Arab Emirates; Uruguay
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number c.19,800-53,000 breeding pairs, equating to c.39,700-106,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 15% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is c.265,000-710,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. The population is therefore placed in the band 250,000-749,999 mature individuals.|
Trend Justification: The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats. The European population size is estimated to be fluctuating (BirdLife International 2015).
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is marine and highly pelagic, rarely occuring within sight of land except when breeding. It feeds mainly on lemmings during the summer but will also take shrews, many insects, berries and small birds when microtines are scarce. Its winter diet is largely unknown, but probably includes marine insects and fish with some scavenging and kleptoparasitism. Breeding begins in June with birds widely scattered over the Arctic and subarctic or montane tundra, up to 1,300 m in Scandinavia. It is highly territorial (del Hoyo et al. 1996).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||12.5|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Congregatory:||Congregatory (and dispersive)|
|Major Threat(s):||This species suffers heavy predation of eggs and young from Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus). Its breeding success is closely linked with lemming abundance (Furness et al. 2013) and thus is threatened by possible disruption to lemming cycles caused by climate change. This may already be a threat as recent anomalies in lemming cycle dynamics in eastern Greenland have already been observed (Gilg et al. 2009).|
Conservation Actions Underway
The following information refers to the species's European range only: The species has been the subject of a recent satellite tagging study, aimed at finding out more about its movements outside the breeding season (Gilg et al. 2013).
Conservation Actions Proposed
The following information refers to the species's European range only: Monitoring to more accurately determine the population of this species is needed. Further research into the requirements and movements of this species would help inform future conservation measures.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2016. Stercorarius longicaudus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22694251A86797542.Downloaded on 21 January 2018.|
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