Vanellus indicus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Charadriiformes Charadriidae

Scientific Name: Vanellus indicus (Boddaert, 1783)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Red-wattled Lapwing, Red-wattled Plover
Hoplopterus indicus AERC TAC (2003)
Hoplopterus indicus indicus Cramp and Simmons (1977-1994)
Taxonomic Source(s): Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ashpole, J, Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J.
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend is not known, but the population is not believed to be decreasing sufficiently rapidly to approach the thresholds under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Countries occurrence:
Afghanistan; Bangladesh; Bhutan; Cambodia; China; India; Indonesia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Kuwait; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia; Myanmar; Nepal; Oman; Pakistan; Qatar; Saudi Arabia; Singapore; Sri Lanka; Syrian Arab Republic; Thailand; Turkey; Turkmenistan; United Arab Emirates; Viet Nam
Bahrain; Jordan
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:14700000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Upper elevation limit (metres):1800
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The global population is estimated at 50,000-60,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2016). The European population is estimated at 50-100 pairs, which equates to 100-200 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend Justification:  The population trend is difficult to determine because of uncertainty over the extent of threats to the species. The tiny European population is estimated to be stable (BirdLife International 2015).
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species is found from lowlands up to c. 1,800 m in Sri Lanka and at least 2,300 m in the Himalayas. It uses open areas near fresh or brackish water: rivers, mudbanks, wet grassland, pools, particularly on cultivated land, such as corn fields, grass fields and large gardens. It also uses open forests, waste, fallow and ploughed land and occasionally grass along highways (Wiersma and Kirwan 2016). Birds from the Turkish population have been recorded using dam lakes, farmland and riverine gravel islands. It lays from mid-April to late June in Iraq and between late June and early July (mainly April-May) in east Arabia. Race indicus breeds from March to August/September, in Sri Lanka it breeds during the south-west monsoon, primarily in June (Wiersma and Kirwan 2016). The nest is a shallow scrape, unlined or lined with small stones and debris, usually situated near water. Clutch size three to four eggs. The species feeds on beetles and other insects as well as molluscs, worms and crustaceans. It is resident, dispersive and in places migratory and in winter, generally moves down from high altitudes (Wiersma and Kirwan 2016).
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Generation Length (years):9
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant
Congregatory:Congregatory (and dispersive)

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The species is not known to be facing any major threats.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
CMS Appendix II. There are currently no known conservation measures in place for this species within its European range.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Research studies in to the species's ecology and population dynamics as well as into potential threats. The development of monitoring schemes should also be undertaken.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Vanellus indicus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22694013A89569039. . Downloaded on 25 September 2018.
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