|Scientific Name:||Charadrius leschenaultii Lesson, 1826|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Ashpole, J, Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Malpas, L.|
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend is difficult to determine but it appears to be declining, however the population is not believed to be decreasing sufficiently rapidly to approach the thresholds under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
Native:Afghanistan; Armenia; Australia; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Bangladesh; British Indian Ocean Territory; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; China; Christmas Island; Cocos (Keeling) Islands; Comoros; Cyprus; Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea; Guam; Hong Kong; India; Indonesia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Japan; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Lebanon; Madagascar; Malawi; Malaysia; Maldives; Mauritius; Mayotte; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Mongolia; Mozambique; Myanmar; Namibia; Nepal; New Caledonia; New Zealand; Northern Mariana Islands; Oman; Pakistan; Palau; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Qatar; Réunion; Russian Federation (Central Asian Russia, Eastern Asian Russia, European Russia); Saudi Arabia; Seychelles; Singapore; Solomon Islands; Somalia; South Africa; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Syrian Arab Republic; Taiwan, Province of China; Tajikistan; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Turkey; Turkmenistan; United Arab Emirates; Uzbekistan; Vanuatu; Viet Nam; Yemen; Zambia
Vagrant:Austria; Belgium; Bulgaria; Burundi; Côte d'Ivoire; Denmark; Finland; France; Germany; Greece; Hungary; Italy; Libya; Malta; Morocco; Netherlands; Nigeria; Norway; Poland; Rwanda; Senegal; Sweden; Tunisia; Ukraine; United Kingdom; United States; Zimbabwe
Present - origin uncertain:Nauru
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The global population is estimated to number c.154,000-339,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2016), while national population sizes have been estimated at < c.10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in China and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Taiwan (Brazil 2009). The European population is estimated at 600-1,000 pairs, which equates to 1,200-2,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).|
Trend Justification: The population trend is difficult to determine because of uncertainty over the impacts of habitat modification on population sizes. However it appears to have declined (Wetlands International 2016). In Europe the current population size trend is unknown, but the population size is estimated to be decreasing by at least 10% in 17.4 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015).
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Behaviour This species is fully migratory, and is likely to migrate without stopping on a broad front between breeding and non-breeding areas (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Migratory flocks form after the end of breeding between mid-June and early-August, and arrive in the wintering grounds between mid-July and November (adults and immature birds arriving before juveniles) (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Those birds wintering in South-East Asia start moving northwards to the breeding grounds in late-February (the migration peaking in March to early-April), arriving from mid-March to May; whereas those wintering in East Africa and southern Asia depart for breeding grounds from mid-April to early-May (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Most non-adult wintering birds remain in the wintering areas during the breeding season (del Hoyo et al. 1996). The species is typically gregarious, feeding in flocks of 2-50, and sometimes congregating in groups of up to 1,000 when roosting (Urban et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996). Habitat Breeding During the breeding season this species is predominantly found in open, dry, treeless, uncultivated areas up to 3,000 m (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Snow and Perrins 1998), including dried mud, silt and clay flats, hard salt-pans overgrown with halophytic plants (Johnsgard 1981, Snow and Perrins 1998), and rocky plains near mountains in desert or semi-desert (Johnsgard 1981, Flint et al. 1984, del Hoyo et al. 1996). In Turkey the species frequents heavily grazed saline steppe (del Hoyo et al. 1996). The species usually breeds near water (del Hoyo et al. 1996) but exceptionally it will nest up to 20 km away from it (Snow and Perrins 1998). Non-breeding During the non-breeding season this species shows a preference for littoral habitats (Urban et al. 1986) with mixed sand and mud substrata (Hockey et al. 2005). It is found on sheltered sandy, shelly or muddy beaches, large intertidal mudflats, sandbanks, salt-marshes, estuaries, coral reefs, rocky islands (del Hoyo et al. 1996), tidal lagoons (Hockey et al. 2005) and dunes near the coast (Urban et al. 1986), although it may sometimes feed on coastal grasslands (Hayman et al. 1986). Whilst on migration the species will occasionally utilise inland habitats such as salt-lakes and brackish swamps, usually roosting on sandbanks and spits (Hayman et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996). Diet This species is carnivorous: during the breeding season its diet consists mainly of terrestrial insects and their larvae (especially beetles, termites, midges and ants), and occasionally lizards (Johnsgard 1981, del Hoyo et al. 1996); whereas during the non-breeding season its diet contains mainly marine invertebrates such as molluscs (snails), worms and crustaceans (such as shrimps and crabs) (Johnsgard 1981, del Hoyo et al. 1996). Breeding site The nest is a shallow scrape on the ground (del Hoyo et al. 1996) amongst sand-hills, gravel, or on other barren substrates (Johnsgard 1981).|
|Systems:||Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||5.8|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Congregatory:||Congregatory (and dispersive)|
|Major Threat(s):||In some parts of its breeding range this species is threatened by the destruction of wetlands and bordering fallow steppe through drainage and water extraction for irrigation (Turkey) (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Snow and Perrins 1998). The species is threatened by habitat degradation and loss throughout its non-breeding range: in Australia agricultural developments are reducing the area of coastal and inland habitat, and hydrological changes to estuaries are modifying important intertidal areas (National Parks and Wildlife Service 1999); key wetland sites in southern Africa (for example Walvis Bay, Namibia) are being degraded through wetland reclamation for suburb and port development, and changes in the flood regime due to road building (Wearne and Underhill 2005). Favoured migration staging posts, such as the Çukurova delta in southern Turkey are under increasing pressure from hunting, tourism and industrial activities and are often polluted along the coast with oil (Tucker and Heath 1994). One of the species's migratory staging areas in China (Chongming Island) is undergoing significant habitat loss and degradation through conversion to aquaculture ponds, farmlands and vegetable gardens, the cultivation of the alien plant Spartina alterniflora on tidal flats (promoting rapid sedimentation with the intention of reclaiming the area), and the Three Gorges Dam on the upper reaches of the Yangtze River reducing the supply of river-borne sediment to mudflats in the area (Ma et al. 2002). The species is also susceptible to disturbance from tourists in its non-breeding range (National Parks and Wildlife Service 1999, Wearne and Underhill 2005), and commercial hunting (for sale at market or to restaurants) is a major threat in the area of Chongming Island, China (Ma et al. 2002).|
Conservation Actions Underway
CMS Appendix II. Bern Convention Appendix II.
Conservation Actions Proposed
In the species's European range, preserve large areas of steppe habitat bordering wetlands to maintain breeding populations as well as maintaining low-intensity sheep farming at some sites to preserve the optimum vegetation structure. Prevent the drainage of wetland sites frequented by the species, including IBAs, and give these sites national protection (Tucker and Heath 1994).
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2016. Charadrius leschenaultii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22693862A89566060.Downloaded on 23 July 2018.|
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