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Charadrius hiaticula

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA AVES CHARADRIIFORMES CHARADRIIDAE

Scientific Name: Charadrius hiaticula
Species Authority: Linnaeus, 1758
Common Name(s):
English Common Ringed Plover, Ringed Plover
French Grand Gravelot

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Malpas, L.
Justification:
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Countries:
Native:
Afghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Angola (Angola); Armenia (Armenia); Austria; Azerbaijan; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Belarus; Belgium; Benin; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Botswana; British Indian Ocean Territory; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cameroon; Canada; Cape Verde; Central African Republic; Chad; Comoros; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Croatia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Djibouti; Egypt; Equatorial Guinea; Eritrea; Estonia; Ethiopia; Faroe Islands; Finland; France; Gabon; Gambia; Germany; Ghana; Gibraltar; Greece; Greenland; Guam; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Hungary; Iceland; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Latvia; Lebanon; Liberia; Libya; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Madagascar; Malawi; Maldives; Mali; Malta; Mauritania; Mauritius; Mayotte; Montenegro; Morocco; Mozambique; Namibia; Netherlands; Niger; Nigeria; Northern Mariana Islands; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Palau; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Poland; Portugal; Qatar; Réunion; Romania; Russian Federation; Rwanda; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Serbia (Serbia); Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Slovakia; Slovenia; Somalia; South Africa; South Sudan; Spain; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Svalbard and Jan Mayen; Swaziland; Sweden; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Tanzania, United Republic of; Togo; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United States; Western Sahara; Yemen; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Vagrant:
Australia; Bangladesh; Barbados; Brunei Darussalam; China; Hong Kong; Japan; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Lesotho; Liechtenstein; Malaysia; Mongolia; Myanmar; New Zealand; Philippines; Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Singapore; Taiwan, Province of China; Thailand; Trinidad and Tobago
Present - origin uncertain:
Micronesia, Federated States of
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The global population is estimated to number c.360,000-1,300,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2006), while national population sizes have been estimated at < c.1,000 individuals on migration and < c.1,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Behaviour The majority of this species is fully migratory (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Hockey et al. 2005) and travels either on a broad or narrow front depending on the location of each population's breeding and wintering grounds (del Hoyo et al. 1996). The species starts to breed from April until June, nesting in solitary pairs or loose semi-colonial groups (especially in undisturbed areas) (del Hoyo et al. 1996). It is a gregarious species (Hayman et al. 1986) and often roosts communally in flocks of several hundred close to its feeding areas (Hayman et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996), occurring singly, in small (up to 50 individuals) or large flocks (up to 1,200-1,500 individuals) during the non-breeding season (Urban et al. 1986). Habitat Breeding The species breeds primarily on sand or shingle beaches either along the Arctic coast (Hayman et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996, Snow and Perrins 1998) or around coastal tundra pools or lakes (Johnsgard 1981). In the south of its range it may also breed inland on the Arctic tundra (Hayman et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996) on muddy plains with stones or pebbles (Johnsgard 1981), on shores and sandbars of inland rivers, lakes, gravel pits or reservoirs (Hayman et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996, Snow and Perrins 1998), or on short grassland, farmland (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Snow and Perrins 1998) and other well-drained sites (Snow and Perrins 1998). Non-breeding Outside of the breeding season the species inhabits muddy, sandy or pebbly coasts in the tropics and subtropics (Johnsgard 1981) including estuaries (del Hoyo et al. 1996), tidal mudflats, sandflats and exposed coral reefs (Urban et al. 1986). It also frequents mudbanks or sandbanks along rivers and lakes (Urban et al. 1986), lagoons, saltmarshes, short grassland, farmland, flooded fields, gravel pits, reservoirs (del Hoyo et al. 1996), sewage works and saltpans during this season (Hockey et al. 2005). Diet Its diet consists of small crustaceans, molluscs, polycheate worms, isopods, amphipods, insects (e.g. ants, beetles, flies and fly larvae) and millipedes (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Breeding site The nest is a shallow scrape (del Hoyo et al. 1996) positioned near the high-water mark on shingle or sandy beaches (Johnsgard 1981, Hayman et al. 1986). The species is a solitary nester although it may breed at quite high densities in undisturbed areas, neighbouring nests spaced between 5 and 100 m apart (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Management information Removing feral American mink Neovison vison from a large archipelago with many small islands in the Baltic Sea resulted in an increase in the breeding density of this species in the area (Nordstrom et al. 2003).
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Important migratory stop-over habitats for this species on the Baltic Sea coastline are threatened by petroleum pollution, wetland drainage for irrigation, land abandonment and changing land management practices leading to scrub overgrowth (Grishanov et al. 2006). The species is also susceptible to avian botulism (so may be threatened by future outbreaks of the disease) (Blaker 1967), and suffers predation from feral America mink Neovison vison in some regions (Nordstrom et al. 2003).

Citation: BirdLife International 2012. Charadrius hiaticula. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 29 November 2014.
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