Phalaropus fulicarius 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Charadriiformes Scolopacidae

Scientific Name: Phalaropus fulicarius (Linnaeus, 1758)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Red Phalarope, Grey Phalarope, Grey (Red) Phalarope
French Phalarope à bec large
Phalaropus fulicaria fulicaria Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993)
Phalaropus fulicaria fulicaria Stotz et al. (1996)
Phalaropus fulicaria fulicaria Christidis and Boles (1994)
Taxonomic Source(s): Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ashpole, J, Butchart, S., Calvert, R., Ekstrom, J., Malpas, L.
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend is not known but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species breeds in the Arctic regions of North America and Eurasia, generally wintering pelagically off western South America and western and south-western Africa (Snow and Perrins 1998).

Countries occurrence:
Angola; Argentina; Austria; Belgium; Bermuda; Canada; Cape Verde; Chile; China; Colombia; Costa Rica; Côte d'Ivoire; Cuba; Czech Republic; Denmark; Ecuador; Egypt; El Salvador; France; Germany; Greenland; Guatemala; Guinea-Bissau; Honduras; Iceland; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Japan; Malaysia; Mauritania; Mexico; Morocco; Mozambique; Namibia; Netherlands; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Portugal; Russian Federation (Central Asian Russia, Eastern Asian Russia, European Russia); Saint Pierre and Miquelon; South Africa; Spain; Svalbard and Jan Mayen; Switzerland; Taiwan, Province of China; United Kingdom; United States
Antarctica; Antigua and Barbuda; Australia; Barbados; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Botswana; Brazil; Bulgaria; Cameroon; Croatia; Cyprus; Faroe Islands; Finland; Gambia; Ghana; Gibraltar; Greece; Guinea; Hong Kong; Hungary; Iraq; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kiribati; Korea, Republic of; Kuwait; Liberia; Libya; Luxembourg; Malta; Montenegro; New Zealand; Nigeria; Norway; Oman; Poland; Romania; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Serbia; Sierra Leone; Slovakia; Slovenia; Sri Lanka; Sweden; Tajikistan; Togo; Tunisia; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; Virgin Islands, U.S.; Zimbabwe
Present - origin uncertain:
Anguilla; Bahamas; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Equatorial Guinea; Guadeloupe; Martinique; Nicaragua; Panama; Puerto Rico; Sao Tomé and Principe; Turks and Caicos Islands; Virgin Islands, British; Western Sahara
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:20800000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The global population is estimated to number c.1,350,000-2,980,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015), while the population in Russia has been estimated at c.10,000-1 million breeding pairs and > c.1,000 individuals on migration (Brazil 2009). The European population is estimated at 570-1,700 males, which equates to 1,100-3,400 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). The population is therefore placed in the band 1,300,000-2,999,999 individuals.

Trend Justification:  The overall population trend is not known (Wetlands International 2015). This species has undergone a small or statistically insignificant increase over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). Note, however, that these surveys cover less than 50% of the species's range in North America. The European population trend is not known (BirdLife International 2015).
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Behaviour This species is a full migrant that travels via marine routes and has been observed migrating 80-160 km offshore. Adult females depart from the breeding grounds in early-June, followed by the adult males and juveniles in late-July and August, most arriving in the non-breeding quarters by the end of November. The species departs Chilean and South African seas in March, and West African and south-west African seas in April, migrating along the Arctic coasts and reoccupying breeding grounds from late-May to early-June. It may also wait 2-3 weeks at the edge of sea ice in the High Arctic waiting for the land to thaw before nesting (Snow and Perrins 1998). Once in the breeding grounds the species breeds between June and July (from mid-June to mid-July in Iceland, and from early-June to early-July in Russia). The species is gregarious at all times of the year (Snow and Perrins 1998), and will even breed in loose groups where the habitat is favourable. Habitat Breeding This species breeds close to the coast on marshy tundra with small pools, on boggy meadows with moss and grass, in marshy river valleys, or on islets in fjords. Non-breeding Outside of the breeding season this species is pelagic and frequents upwelling zones in the tropics and subtropics where plankton occurs in high concentrations (e.g. over 50,000 organisms/litre). Diet Breeding During the breeding season the diet of this species consists chiefly of invertebrates, such as adult and larval insects (e.g. beetles, caddisflies, dipteran flies, bugs), molluscs, crustaceans, annelid worms, spiders, mites, jellyfish (Johnsgard 1981) and occasionally plant material (seeds) when animal matter is scarce. Non-breeding During this season the species feeds at sea on plankton, including amphipods less than 2 mm long, Hydrozoa and small fish from the water surface or just below. Breeding site The nest is a shallow cup or scrape on the ground in short vegetation (e.g. sedges or grasses) and is usually close to or surrounded by water (Johnsgard 1981, Snow and Perrins 1998).

Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Generation Length (years):4.9
Movement patterns:Full Migrant
Congregatory:Congregatory (and dispersive)

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The following information refers to the species's European range only: Changes to habitat in the Arctic and sub-Arctic are likely to impact this species during its breeding season. At sea, this species is likely to be vulnerable to being caught as bycatch in gillnet fisheries (Žydelis et al. 2013). The species relies on predator alarm warning from breeding Arctic Terns Sterna paradisaea, and localised populations have decreased rapidly from some breeding colonies in Greenland in the absence of Arctic Terns (Jorgensen et al. 2007).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
The following information refers to the species's European range only: The species is listed under the African Eurasian Waterbird Agreement. It is listed under Appendix II of the Bern Convention. It is listed within nine marine Important Bird Areas. 

Conservation Actions Proposed
The following information refers to the species's European range only: Identification and designation of marine protected areas for important sites at sea. Observer programmes on gillnet fisheries across its range to monitor bycatch rates

Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Phalaropus fulicarius. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22693494A86675091. . Downloaded on 26 May 2018.
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