Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Charadriiformes Scolopacidae

Scientific Name: Tringa erythropus
Species Authority: (Pallas, 1764)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Spotted Redshank
French Chevalier arlequin
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Malpas, L.
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2009 Least Concern (LC)
2008 Least Concern (LC)
2004 Least Concern (LC)
2000 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1994 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1988 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Countries occurrence:
Afghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Armenia (Armenia); Austria; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Belarus; Belgium; Benin; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Brunei Darussalam; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cameroon; Canada; Chad; China; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Croatia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Egypt; Eritrea; Estonia; Ethiopia; Finland; France; Gambia; Georgia; Germany; Ghana; Greece; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Hong Kong; Hungary; India; Indonesia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Japan; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Latvia; Libya; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Malaysia; Mali; Malta; Mauritania; Moldova; Mongolia; Montenegro; Morocco; Myanmar; Nepal; Netherlands; Niger; Nigeria; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Poland; Portugal; Qatar; Romania; Russian Federation; Rwanda; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Serbia (Serbia); Seychelles; Singapore; Slovakia; Slovenia; Somalia; South Sudan; Spain; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Sweden; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Taiwan, Province of China; Tajikistan; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United States (Georgia); Uzbekistan; Viet Nam; Yemen
Angola (Angola); Antigua and Barbuda; Australia; Barbados; Botswana; Cambodia; Cape Verde; Djibouti; Dominica; Guadeloupe; Lebanon; Liberia; Liechtenstein; Luxembourg; Malawi; Maldives; Martinique; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Montserrat; Mozambique; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; South Africa; Timor-Leste; Togo; Trinidad and Tobago; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Present - origin uncertain:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 3720000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The global population is estimated to number c.110,000-350,000 individuals (Wetlands International, 2006), while national population estimates include: < c.10,000 individuals on migration and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in China; c.50-1,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Taiwan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).

Trend Justification:  The overall population trend is stable, although some populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006).
For further information about this species, see 22693207_tringa_erythropus.pdf.
A PDF viewer such as Adobe Reader is required.
Current Population Trend: Stable
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Behaviour This species is a full migrant (Hayman et al. 1986, Smit and Piersma 1989, del Hoyo et al. 1996), breeding in the subarctic and arctic zone of Fennoscandia and Siberia (Smit and Piersma 1989). On passage to its wintering grounds the majority of the species travels overland on a broad front, although there is also an important route down the west coast of Europe (Smit and Piersma 1989, del Hoyo et al. 1996). Females begin to moving south in early-June, the males following during July, and juveniles migrating from August to September (del Hoyo et al. 1996). The movements of this species are characterised by long flights between staging areas (such as the Wadden Sea, Dutch delta region, southern Hungary, south-east Greece, central Turkey, the Black and Caspian Seas, central Kazakhstan, Lake Baikal, Chang Lake (Ussuriland), central Yakutia, Sakhalin, Japan and Korea) (del Hoyo et al. 1996), those birds wintering in Sahel and northern savanna zones (e.g. Mali, Nigeria and Chad (Smit and Piersma 1989)) also cross the Sahara (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Arrival in Africa begins in August and peaks in October (Hayman et al. 1986), the species being present throughout the tropics mainly between October and April (del Hoyo et al. 1996), and returning to arctic breeding grounds between late-April and mid-May (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Few birds remain in the tropics during the breeding season, but non-breeders may spend the summer just south of the breeding grounds (del Hoyo et al. 1996). The species breeds in dispersed pairs and is often seen singly, although it is also common in parties of up to 20 and exceptionally over 100 (Urban et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996). Adults typically moult in large flocks (Hayman et al. 1986) in staging areas in their arctic breeding range before moving to wintering grounds (del Hoyo et al. 1996). This species is both a diurnal and nocturnal feeder (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Habitat Breeding During the breeding season this species inhabits lowland and upland (but not montane) regions, in wooded and open tundra (Snow and Perrins 1998), marshes, swampy pine or birch forest near the arctic tree-line, and also more open areas such as heathland and shrub tundra (Johnsgard 1981, del Hoyo et al. 1996). Non-breeding During migration and on its wintering grounds (Flint et al. 1984) this species frequents a variety of freshwater and brackish wetlands such as sewage farms, irrigated rice fields, brackish lagoons, salt-marshes, salt-pans, sheltered muddy coastal shores (del Hoyo et al. 1996) and mudflats (Johnsgard 1981), marshes and marshy lake edges (Johnsgard 1981, Urban et al. 1986), small reservoirs, pools and flooded grasslands (Urban et al. 1986). Diet The species is carnivorous, its diet consisting chiefly of aquatic insects and their larvae (especially swimming beetles and hemipterans), terrestrial flying insects (such as craneflies), small crustaceans, molluscs, polycheate worms, and small fish and amphibians up to 6-7 cm long (Johnsgard 1981, del Hoyo et al. 1996). Breeding site The nest of this species is a shallow depression (Snow and Perrins 1998) positioned in grass tussocks (del Hoyo et al. 1996), on sphagnum moss (Flint et al. 1984), or in fairly dry areas of forestamongst low vegetation such as dwarf willows (Johnsgard 1981). Nest sites are often selected near dead trees or other suitable look-out perches (Johnsgard 1981). Management information Intensive grazing of grassland (> 1 cow per hectare) was found to attract a higher abundance of this species in Hungary (Baldi et al. 2005).
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Unknown
Generation Length (years): 5.6
Movement patterns: Full Migrant
Congregatory: Congregatory (and dispersive)

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is threatened by habitat loss in its wintering range and on migration: wetland sites in Ghana are being degraded through coastal erosion and developments involving drainage and land reclamation (Ntiamboa-Baidu 1991); and in China and South Korea important migrational staging areas around the coast of the Yellow Sea are being lost through land reclamation and degraded as a result of declining river flows (from water abstraction), increased pollution, unsustainable harvesting of benthic fauna and a reduction in the amount of sediment being carried into the area by the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers (Barter 2002, Barter 2006, Kelin and Qiang 2006).

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Tringa erythropus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22693207A38797794. . Downloaded on 08 October 2015.
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