||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
||15-19 cm. Distinctive, quail-like ground bird. Adult male light brown above with brown rosette and white streak patterning. Fawn-white underparts with black crescents. Adult female has distinctive, white-spotted black collar and broad rufous gorget on upper breast. Juvenile similar to adult male. Similar spp. Similar to buttonquails Turnix spp. but with longer legs. Distinguished in flight from quails and buttonquails by upperwing pattern of white primary patch and broad pale trailing edge, and on ground, by diagnostic female plumage, characteristic upright posture and longer legs. Voice Repeated, low-pitched resonant oo by day and night, in spring. Hints Usually detected at night by spotlighting lightly-grazed grasslands.
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Taylor, J. & Butchart, S.
||Garnett, S., McClellan, R., Pilgrim, J., Shutes, S., Stattersfield, A., Taylor, J., Allinson, T, Symes, A.
This species is listed as Endangered because it has a very small population which is experiencing an ongoing decline owing to cultivation and overgrazing of natural grassland.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2008 – Endangered (EN)
- 2007 – Endangered (EN)
- 2006 – Endangered (EN)
- 2004 – Endangered (EN)
- 2000 – Endangered (EN)
- 1996 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1994 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1988 – Threatened (T)
|Range Description:||Pedionomus torquatus is endemic to Australia. It is recorded from north-central Victoria, eastern South Australia, southern New South Wales around the Riverina and west-central Queensland (Baker-Gabb 2002; Barrett et al. 2003). The population is estimated to vary from c.2000 birds during periods of widespread drought to c.5500–7000 birds after several successive seasons with favourable conditions (Baker-Gabb 2002). A significant proportion of the population occurs in the Riverina region. Here, the population may be as high as 5,500 birds after good years, but can decline to about 1,000 in poor years (Baker-Gabb 2002). The population in west-central Queensland is estimated at 1000 birds, and the north-central Victorian and South Australia populations may hold 500 birds each during good years (Maher and Baker-Gabb 1993; Baker-Gabb 2002). Surveys in the Riverina reveal an on-going decline, with an encounter rate of 0.13 birds/km in 4,286 km of monitoring during the dry years of 2001–2007, compared to 0.3 birds/km in 2,121 km of monitoring in the wetter years of 1984–1986 (Baker-Gabb 2002; Birds Australia 2008).|
|♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||32600|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Yes||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Number of Locations:||11-100||♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population is estimated to vary from between 5,500–7,000 in good years to around 2,000 birds during periods of widespread drought (Baker-Gabb 2002, Garnett et al. 2011). It is placed in the band 1,000-2,499 mature individuals.|
Trend Justification: Considering the declines in the area of suitable habitat, this species's population is suspected to be decreasing at an unquantified rate (Garnett and Crowley 2000). The cultivation of native grassland has virtually extinguished the species from southern South Australia and Victoria and is increasing across the Riverina. Even if left to recover, habitat remains unsuitable for decades. Where patches survive, they are often too few and dispersed to be suitable. High levels of grazing cause the desertion of an area, possibly because birds become too vulnerable to predators. It has become effectively extinct in south-west Victoria, south-east South Australia, eastern New South Wales and south-east Queensland.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|♦ Number of mature individuals:||1000-2499||♦ Continuing decline of mature individuals:||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations:||No||♦ Population severely fragmented:||No|
|♦ No. of subpopulations:||1||♦ Continuing decline in subpopulations:||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:||No||♦ All individuals in one subpopulation:||Yes|
|♦ No. of individuals in largest subpopulation:||100|