|Scientific Name:||Pterocles orientalis (Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S. & Ashpole, J|
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (extent of occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
Native:Afghanistan; Algeria; Azerbaijan; China; Cyprus; Egypt; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Libya; Morocco; Pakistan; Portugal; Russian Federation (Central Asian Russia - Vagrant, European Russia); Saudi Arabia; Spain; Syrian Arab Republic; Tajikistan; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan
Vagrant:Bahrain; Belgium; Germany; Greece; Lebanon; Malta; Nepal
Present - origin uncertain:United Arab Emirates
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The European population is estimated at 10,400-19,100 pairs, which equates to 20,800-38,200 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.15% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 138,000-255,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.|
Trend Justification: The population is suspected to be in decline owing to ongoing habitat destruction (del Hoyo et al. 1997). In Europe the population size is estimated to be decreasing by 50-79% in 16.8 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015).
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||The species inhabits semi-arid plains with steppe to semi-desert vegetation, including pastoral scrubland and dry cereal cultivation with associated fallow ground (de Juana and Boesman 2016). It lays between March and August with timing dependent on latitude, generally laying in April in the Canary Islands and mostly June in Spain and the former USSR with replacement clutches until September (de Juana and Boesman 2016). It normally lays three eggs. The nest is an uncovered, bare scrape in bare, stony areas such as those found on the edges of ploughed fields (Tucker and Heath 1994). It often feeds on small or very small seeds apparently preferring Leguminosae, as well as cereal grain and cultivated legumes. It is sedentary in Iberia and North Africa and nomadic or partially migratory in Turkey and the Middle East and largely migratory in Kazakhstan (de Juana and Boesman 2016).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||5.6|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Major Threat(s):||Within Europe the main threat to this species is the intensification of agriculture. Ploughing of pasture and irrigation have reduced available habitat while the removal of marginal areas of semi-natural vegetation and the increased application of agro-chemicals has reduced food availability and these practices have probably been responsible for the extinctions in some areas. On the remaining grasslands, overgrazing affects the vegetation composition and structure, reducing both food availability and cover for nesting. Conversely, land abandonment is also a major threat, as the open, treeless steppe habitat is quickly lost when grazing is removed. Hunting, which is legal in Turkey during the breeding season, may be a problem; the species's habit of concentrating in large numbers at traditional drinking sites throughout the year means that it forms an attractive and relatively easy target (Tucker and Heath 1994).|
Conservation Actions Underway
EU Birds Directive Annex I. Bern Convention Appendix II. Several EU LIFE programmes have focused on its steppe habitat and the species occurs in some SPAs in Spain. It is listed in the Spanish Red Book as 'vulnerable' (Madroño et al. 2004).
Conservation Actions Proposed
Within Europe suitable habitats should be maintained through the continuation of long-established, low-intensity farming systems. These can be maintained through agri-environment schemes. In addition restrictions on grazing rates and the use of herbicides should be implemented and the maintenance of fallow land should be encouraged (Tucker and Heath 1994).
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2016. Pterocles orientalis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22693002A89651240.Downloaded on 21 October 2017.|
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