|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Krishnan, A., Jayadevan, P., Isfendiyaroglu, S., Ayé, R., Kashkarov, R., Cavalieri, R., Azafzaf, H., Cherkaoui, I. & Smart, M.
||Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Ashpole, J, Symes, A.
This species has an extremely large range, and a very large global population, however the population is suspected to be in decline owing to ongoing habitat destruction and hunting pressure. In Europe declines have been very rapid, however this only represents c.15 % of the global range and trends in Asia and north Africa are more difficult to determine. It remains classified as Least Concern because the overall rate of decline is not yet suspected to be moderately rapid, however better information from across the range could lead to its uplisting to a higher category of threat in the near future.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2016 – Least Concern (LC)
- 2015 – Least Concern (LC)
- 2012 – Least Concern (LC)
- 2009 – Least Concern (LC)
- 2008 – Least Concern (LC)
- 2004 – Least Concern (LC)
- 2000 – Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
- 1994 – Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
- 1988 – Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
|Range Description:||This species breeds in Iberia and NW Africa (including the Canary Islands), and from Turkey east through southern Central Asia to NW China, and south to Iran and Pakistan, with some birds wintering further south in the Middle East and NW India (de Juana & Boesman 2016).|
Afghanistan; Algeria; Azerbaijan; China; Cyprus; Egypt; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Libya; Morocco; Pakistan; Portugal; Russian Federation (Central Asian Russia - Vagrant, European Russia); Saudi Arabia; Spain; Syrian Arab Republic; Tajikistan; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan
Bahrain; Belgium; Germany; Greece; Lebanon; Malta; Nepal
Present - origin uncertain:
United Arab Emirates
|♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||14700000|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The European population is estimated at 10,400-19,100 pairs, which equates to 20,800-38,200 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.15% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 138,000-255,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.|
Trend Justification: The population is suspected to be in decline owing to ongoing habitat destruction and hunting pressure. In Europe the population size is estimated to be decreasing by 50-79% in 16.8 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015). The global rate of decline is difficult to determine, but is not currently thought to be moderately rapid.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|♦ Number of mature individuals:||130000-259999||♦ Continuing decline of mature individuals:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations:||No||♦ Population severely fragmented:||No|
|♦ Continuing decline in subpopulations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:||No||♦ All individuals in one subpopulation:||No|