||Drummer Rail, Wallace's Rail
||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
||40 cm. Large, secretive, flightless rail. Very dark slate-grey throughout with browner wings, lower back and tail. Bright red bare parts, including eye-ring and frontal shield. Long and robust bill. Similar spp. Plain Bush-hen Amaurornis olivaceus is smaller, with shorter yellow bill and legs. Purple Swamphen Porphyrio porphyrio (recently discovered on Halmahera) is much larger and bluer, with shorter, thicker bill and conspicuous white undertail-coverts. Voice A low drumming noise is made as a contact call, there are also reports of screaming calls.
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
||Emanuelson, E., Poulsen, M., Mittermeier, J. & Bashari, H.
||Benstead, P., Bird, J., Davidson, P., Taylor, J., Tobias, J., Martin, R
This enigmatic flightless rail is classified as Vulnerable because it has a small population, which is likely to be declining and undergoing fragmentation owing to the on-going loss of its specialised habitat. However, it is poorly known, and further surveys may reveal it to be more numerous and occur in a wider range of habitats than current information suggests.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2012 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2008 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2004 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2000 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1996 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1994 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1988 – Threatened (T)
|Population:||The population is estimated to number 2,500-9,999 mature individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 3,750-14,999 individuals, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.|
Trend Justification: The species is suspected to be in decline owing to the loss of its habitat through deforestation and logging of primary habitats on Halmahera, as well as the potential impacts of alien predators and hunting.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|♦ Number of mature individuals:||2500-9999||♦ Continuing decline of mature individuals:||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations:||No||♦ Population severely fragmented:||No|
|♦ No. of subpopulations:||2-100||♦ Continuing decline in subpopulations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:||No||♦ All individuals in one subpopulation:||No|
|♦ No. of individuals in largest subpopulation:||1-89|