Zapornia flavirostra 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Gruiformes Rallidae

Scientific Name: Zapornia flavirostra (Swainson, 1837)
Common Name(s):
English Black Crake
French Râle à bec jaune
Amaurornis flavirostra (Swainson, 1837)
Amaurornis flavirostris Dowsett and Forbes-Watson (1993)
Limnocorax flavirostra Cramp and Simmons (1977-1994)
Limnocorax flavirostra AERC TAC (2003)
Taxonomic Source(s): Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Taxonomic Notes: Zapornia flavirostra (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Amaurornis.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J. & Malpas, L.
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend is not known, but the population is not believed to be decreasing sufficiently rapidly to approach the thresholds under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Countries occurrence:
Angola; Benin; Botswana; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Chad; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Djibouti; Equatorial Guinea; Ethiopia; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Kenya; Liberia; Malawi; Mali; Mauritania; Mozambique; Namibia; Niger; Nigeria; Rwanda; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Somalia; South Africa; South Sudan; Sudan; Swaziland; Tanzania, United Republic of; Togo; Uganda; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:24800000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Upper elevation limit (metres):3000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The population is estimated to number 1,000,000 individuals.

Trend Justification:  The population trend is difficult to determine because of uncertainty over the impacts of habitat modification on population sizes.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Behaviour This species is sedentary and a local migrant, its movements related to seasonal rainfall and the filling up of temporary waters (Urban et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996, Taylor and van Perlo 1998). Young birds may also undergo extensive dispersal movements that are not linked to rainfall (Taylor and van Perlo 1998). The species may breed throughout the year when conditions are suitable, with seasonal peaks during or following periods of rain (del Hoyo et al. 1996). It nests territorially (Urban et al. 1986), and is usually observed in pairs, but may gather in groups of up to 10 individuals (Urban et al. 1986, Hockey et al. 2005). The adults may become flightless for up to 3 weeks between December and March when moulting their fight feathers (Urban et al. 1986), during which time they remain within the cover of waterside vegetation (Hockey et al. 2005). The species is active diurnally, with peaks of activity occurring just after rainfall (Urban et al. 1986). Habitat The species inhabits many types of wetland, although it requires moderate vegetation cover, some degree of permanent flooding (Urban et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996, Taylor and van Perlo 1998), and tangled vegetation in which it can climb, roost and nest (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Taylor and van Perlo 1998). Suitable habitats include flowing and still inland freshwaters (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Taylor and van Perlo 1998) (such as lakes, ponds, reservoirs, seasonal pans and temporary flooded areas along rivers) (Urban et al. 1986, Taylor and van Perlo 1998), the margins of coastal lagoons (Ghana) (Taylor and van Perlo 1998) and estuarine waters (Hockey et al. 2005); preferably fringed by rank grass, sedges, reedbeds, papyrus, swampy thickets, bushes or other vegetation (Urban et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996, Taylor and van Perlo 1998). The species also inhabits ponds with floating submergent vegetation (e.g. water-lilies) (Urban et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996, Taylor and van Perlo 1998) and the interior of dense or extensive reedbeds (Taylor and van Perlo 1998), as well as dense undergrowth in boggy forest clearings (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Taylor and van Perlo 1998), or the margins of swampy forest streams (Urban et al. 1986). In more open areas it may inhabit broad, grassy marshes (Urban et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996) and will occupy very small streams with little cover in drier regions (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Diet The diet of this species consists of worms, molluscs, crustaceans, adult and larval insects, small fish (Urban et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996), small frogs and tadpoles (del Hoyo et al. 1996), the eggs and nestlings (Urban et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996) of weavers Ploceus spp. and herons (e.g. Rufous-bellied Heron Ardeola rufiventris) (Taylor and van Perlo 1998), as well as the seeds and other parts of water plants (Urban et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996) (e.g. duckweed Lemna and water-lilies Nymphaea) (Taylor and van Perlo 1998) and occasionally carrion (Urban et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996). Breeding site The nest is a deep bowl of reeds and other aquatic plants that is usually placed floating on or suspended 20-50 cm above the surface of water in vegetation (Urban et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996, Taylor and van Perlo 1998, Hockey et al. 2005). Nests may also be placed on the ground or in grass tussocks near water, and occasionally up to 3 m high in bushes (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Taylor and van Perlo 1998).
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Generation Length (years):3.7
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant
Congregatory:Congregatory (and dispersive)

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Utilisation The species is hunted for trade (at traditional medicine markets) in Nigeria (Nikolaus 2001), and for local consumption and trade at Lake Chilwa, Malawi (Bhima 2006).

Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Zapornia flavirostra. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22692643A93362623. . Downloaded on 18 August 2018.
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