Laterallus spilonota 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Gruiformes Rallidae

Scientific Name: Laterallus spilonota
Species Authority: (Gould, 1841)
Common Name(s):
English Galapagos Rail, Galapagos Crake, Galápagos Rail
Laterallus spilonotus
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
Taxonomic Notes: Laterallus spilonota (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously listed as L. spilonotus.
Identification information: 15-16 cm. Small, dark rail. Dark grey-black head, neck and breast. Brown upperparts with small white spots (when breeding). Dark grey-brown underparts with barred black-and-white undertail. Brown legs, black bill, red eye. Female similar but possibly paler throat. Similar spp. Paint-billed Crake Neocrex erythrops is larger, barred on flanks, lacks white spotting and has red legs and green-and-red bill. Voice Variable. Territorial call, fast chi-chi-chi-chirroo descending on the last note, also descending trill and various rattles, squeaks, hisses, cackles and warbles.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2012-06-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S.
Contributor(s): Cruz, F., Gibbs, J., Tye, A., Vargas, H. & Wiedenfeld, D.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Mahood, S., McClellan, R., Pople, R., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A. & Temple, H.
This species is restricted to a small range on just a few islands. It is declining owing to the ongoing effects of introduced plants, herbivores and predators, and the continuing destruction and degradation of habitat. These factors qualify it as Vulnerable.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2012 Vulnerable (VU)
2008 Vulnerable (VU)
2006 Vulnerable (VU)
2004 Vulnerable (VU)
2000 Vulnerable (VU)
1994 Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
1988 Near Threatened (NT)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Laterallus spilonota is endemic to the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador, where it occurs on a number of islands including Pinta, Fernandina, Isabela (on Sierra Negra, Wolf, Darwin, Alcedo volcanos), Santiago, Santa Cruz, Floreana, and San Cristóbal. It is considered common in the highlands of Santiago, Santa Cruz and Sierra Negra (south Isabela) and smaller though stable or increasing populations occur on Wolf, Darwin, and Alcedo volcanos and on Fernandina (J. Gibbs in litt. 2007). The Pinta population is recovering after goat eradication. The small population on Floreana is certainly declining, and recent survey work on Santa Cruz suggests a slight population decline since baseline surveys in 1986-1987 (Gibbs et al. 2003). The population on San Cristóbal is probably extinct (H. Vargas and F. Cruz in litt. 2000).

Countries occurrence:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 2000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Number of Locations: 7
Continuing decline in number of locations: Yes
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Upper elevation limit (metres): 1700
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population was estimated to number 5,000-10,000 individuals by Rosenberg (1990), and repeat surveys on Santa Cruz Island in 2000 gave broadly similar results. This roughly equates to 3,300-6,700 mature individuals.

Trend Justification:  A slow and on-going population decline is suspected, as extrapolated from c.9% decline in rail detections (c.f. 1986-1987 surveys) during 2000 surveys on Santa Cruz (Gibbs et al. 2003).
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 3300-6700 Continuing decline of mature individuals: Yes
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
No. of subpopulations: 7 Continuing decline in subpopulations: Yes
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No
No. of individuals in largest subpopulation: 1-89

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It inhabits grass and forest of mesic regions in the highlands, where it occurs in deep thickets and dense ground-cover (Taylor and van Perlo 1998), although it is rarely found in mangroves (Wiedenfeld 2006). It appears to favour areas with freshwater pools, and avoids short, herbaceous vegetation (Rosenberg 1990). Although historically known from coastal mangroves, it has largely abandoned this habitat for unknown reasons (Taylor and van Perlo 1998). It appears tolerant of human-modified habitats, such as agricultural land, but avoids grazed, short-grass meadows (Rosenberg 1990). It feeds mainly on invertebrates and seeds (Franklin et al. 1979, Harris 1982).

Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes
Generation Length (years): 3.7
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is probably vulnerable to introduced predators such as rats (predation on nests and fledglings potentially the biggest threat, D. Wiedenfeld in litt. 2012), cats, dogs and pigs, given its weak flying ability. Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus and Barn Owl Tyto alba may be natural predators (Rosenberg 1990, Taylor and van Perlo 1998). Habitat destruction as a result of grazing by introduced herbivores (notably goats, cattle and horses) is probably the principal explanation for its rarity on San Cristóbal and Floreana (Rosenberg 1990, H. Vargas and F. Cruz in litt. 2000). If populations on San Cristóbal and Floreana remain small, local extinction is likely owing to natural disturbances, inbreeding and population changes of predators and herbivores (Rosenberg 1990, H. Vargas and F. Cruz in litt. 2000). The invasion of the highlands of Santa Cruz by exotic Cinchona may lead to a reduction in the fern and sedge vegetation types it favours (Gibbs et al. 2003).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
Most of the archipelago is under national park protection, including much of the species's remaining natural habitat. Localised control of introduced predators is ongoing (Taylor and van Perlo 1998) and UNDP 'Galapagos Invasive Species' project taking place 2001-2007. Goats have been eradicated from Pinta, north Isabela and Santiago, and on Santiago a programme to eradicate pigs has been successfully completed (H. Vargas and F. Cruz in litt. 2000, Cruz et al. 2005). The islands were declared a World Heritage Site in 1979.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct standardised surveys on all range islands to assess the total population size. Monitor population trends through regular surveys. Study the impacts of predation and habitat degradation by alien species. Restrict movement of domestic animals on Floreana (Rosenberg 1990). Acquire plateau areas on San Cristóbal, and exclude herbivores from these areas (Rosenberg 1990). Restore plant communities on Santiago and north Isabela (Rosenberg 1990, A. Tye in litt. 2000). Monitor the expansion of invasive Cinchona in the highlands of Santa Cruz, and investigate its impact on the species (Gibbs et al. 2003). Investigate threats posed by rats and cats on Santa Cruz Island (D. Wiedenfeld in litt. 2012).

Citation: BirdLife International. 2014. Laterallus spilonota. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T22692366A62722582. . Downloaded on 25 November 2015.
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