Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Otidiformes Otididae

Scientific Name: Neotis denhami
Species Authority: (Children, 1826)
Common Name(s):
English Denham's Bustard, Stanley Bustard
French Outarde de Denham
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
Identification information: Male 100cm, female 80cm. Large bustard with grey crown bordered black, white supercillium, whitish-grey face and black line running back from eye. Grey foreneck; hindneck orange-brown. A large black and white patterned panel is visible on the folded wing. Highly distinctive.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2014-07-24
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S.
Contributor(s): Bennun, L., Brouwer, J., Carswell, M., Dodman, T., Dowsett, R., Dowsett-Lemaire, F., Hall, P., Murphy, P. & Tyler, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Evans, M., Martin, R, O'Brien, A., Pilgrim, J., Robertson, P., Symes, A. & Taylor, J.
This species is estimated to be undergoing a moderately rapid population decline owing to hunting pressure and conversion of grassland habitat for agriculture, and it is therefore classified as Near Threatened.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2012 Near Threatened (NT)
2008 Near Threatened (NT)
2004 Near Threatened (NT)
2000 Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
1994 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1988 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Neotis denhami occurs in southern Mauritania, Senegal, Gambia, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Mali, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Burkina Faso, Niger, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, Central African Republic, Sudan, South Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Congo, Angola, Malawi, Zambia (a stronghold), Namibia, Zimbabwe, Botswana (where it is very scarce [Hancock 2008]), the extreme southern tip of Mozambique, South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. Although very widely distributed, it has suffered population declines through much, if not all, of its range (Urban et al. 1986). The Rift Valley in Kenya was formerly regarded as its stronghold, but there are now probably fewer than 300 in all of Kenya (L. Bennun in litt. 1999), and its range has contracted in this country (del Hoyo et al. 1996). It is considered common in Central African Republic and parts of Uganda, but there have been declines in Sudan, South Sudan and Nigeria (del Hoyo et al. 1996). In South Africa, the total Transvaal breeding population only numbers c.300 birds, and the South Cape Province winter population is an estimated 956 birds (del Hoyo et al. 1996).

Countries occurrence:
Angola (Angola); Benin; Botswana; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Chad; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Gambia; Ghana; Guinea; Kenya; Lesotho; Malawi; Mali; Mauritania; Mozambique; Namibia; Niger; Nigeria; Rwanda; Senegal; Sierra Leone; South Africa; South Sudan; Sudan; Swaziland; Tanzania, United Republic of; Togo; Uganda; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 7660000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Upper elevation limit (metres): 2000
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as common in the Central African Republic and parts of Uganda (del Hoyo et al. 1996).

Trend Justification:  The species's range has contracted in Kenya and there have been declines in Sudan and Nigeria (del Hoyo et al. 1996), and overall the species is suspected to be undergoing a moderately rapid global population decline owing to hunting pressure and conversion of grassland habitat for agriculture.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: Unknown Continuing decline of mature individuals: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No
No. of individuals in largest subpopulation: 100

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Found up to 3,000 m (del Hoyo et al. 1996). It inhabits grasslands, grassy Acacia-studded dunes, fairly dense shrubland, light woodland, farmland, crops, dried marsh and arid scrub plains, also grass-covered ironstone pans and burnt savanna woodland in Sierra Leone and high rainfall sour grassveld, planted pastures and cereal croplands in fynbos in South Africa (del Hoyo et al. 1996). It feeds on insects, small vertebrates and plant material (Collar 1996, T. Dodman in litt. 1999). The breeding season is variable and consequently unclear, perhaps indicating opportunism in reaction to rainfall (del Hoyo et al. 1996). The clutch-size is one or two (del Hoyo et al. 1996).

Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Unknown
Generation Length (years): 10.3
Movement patterns: Full Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Hunting is the primary cause of declines across the Sahel (Newby 1990) and throughout West Africa (Turner and Goriup 1989, Collar 1996, P. Hall in litt. 1999). In eastern and southern Africa, hunting is also a problem (Parker 1999), but the main threat appears to be conversion of grassland and light woodland to agriculture (Collar 1996, Turner and Goriup 1989). Collisions with power lines may be a significant threat in parts of the range, particularly South Africa.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct surveys to establish an estimate for the entire population. Carry out regular surveys to measure population trends. Monitor the rate of habitat loss, especially in Kenya and South Africa. Test the use of alternatives to reduce hunting, such as ecotourism. Protect habitat and enforce hunting bans in reserves. Research and work to reduce power-line collisions in South Africa for this and other bustard species.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2014. Neotis denhami. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T22691905A62656203. . Downloaded on 09 October 2015.
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