Ducula mindorensis 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Columbiformes Columbidae

Scientific Name: Ducula mindorensis (Whitehead, 1896)
Common Name(s):
English Mindoro Imperial-pigeon, Mindoro Imperial Pigeon, Mindoro Imperial-Pigeon, Mindoro Zone-tailed Pigeon
Spanish Paloma de Mindoro
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Identification information: 47 cm. Large, montane pigeon. Light blue-grey head, neck and most of underparts, washed rufous on vent and undertail-coverts. Pinkish forehead, lower face and throat. Red orbital skin surrounded by blackish ring which extends into short post-ocular stripe. Bronzy-red hindneck and mantle, emerald-green lower back, rump and wings, bronzy-red inner wing-coverts edged. Blackish-green flight feathers and tail with pale grey central tail-band. Yellow iris, dark bill, reddish legs. Similar spp. Pink-bellied Imperial-pigeon D. poliocephala is smaller and shows prominent, dark breast-band. Voice Undocumented. Hints Look for flocks flying over the canopy early morning and late afternoon.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered C2a(ii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Allen, D.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Bird, J., Lowen, J., Mahood, S., Taylor, J.
This pigeon is listed as Endangered owing to a recent assessment of available habitat which indicated that its range and population, both of which are declining as a result of the continuing rapid reduction in the extent and quality of forest, were much smaller than previously thought.

Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Ducula mindorensis is endemic to the island of Mindoro in the Philippines, where it is known from seven localities in the central mountains (although it was presumably once present throughout the highlands), with records from five sites since 1980 (Collar et al. 1999). It has always been uncommon and local, occurring at low densities. However, 22 individuals were seen or heard over six days on Mt Ilong in 1991, indicating that the species may be under-recorded, particularly if fieldworkers are unfamiliar with its vocalisations.

Countries occurrence:
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:3900
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):YesExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Number of Locations:6-10Continuing decline in number of locations:Yes
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:NoLower elevation limit (metres):700
Upper elevation limit (metres):1800
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The population is estimated to number 1,000-2,499 individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 667-1,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 600-1,700 mature individuals.

Trend Justification:  Hunting and deforestation are suspected to be causing this species to decline at a moderately rapid to rapid rate.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:600-1700Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
No. of subpopulations:1Continuing decline in subpopulations:Yes
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:Yes
No. of individuals in largest subpopulation:100

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:At least formerly it was usually found in forest above 1,000 m, with records spanning 700-1,830 m. However, during fieldwork in 1991, most observations were made in understorey trees of the lowest-altitude forest remaining (between 800-950 m), with only two noted above 1,000 m. It conceivably undertakes seasonal or nomadic movements in response to changes in food supply.

Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):6.6
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Forest destruction and hunting for food (Ducula pigeons are common targets for subsistence hunters throughout the Philippines) are the most significant threats. In 1988, just 120 km2 of Mindoro remained forested, of which just 25% was closed-canopy. Although it generally occurs above the zone of greatest deforestation, this does not confer security if it periodically depends on fruiting events at lower elevations. Logging and shifting cultivation continue to reduce lower-altitude forests at key sites such as Mt Halcon and San Vicente.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix I. In 1964, the species was removed from the list of game birds, and soon afterwards was afforded legal protection, although actual enforcement of this legislation is ineffectual. A (presumably tiny) population may persist in the predominantly grassland Mt Iglit-Baco National Park. The species featured on a bilingual environmental awareness poster focusing on pigeons produced as part of the "Only in the Philippines" series in the mid-1990s.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct surveys (using vocalisations as an aid to detection and making sound recordings) in remaining submontane and montane forests on Mindoro, to clarify its current status. Research its ecology, including determining food sources, tree phenology and seasonal movements. Propose all remaining forest on Mt Halcon for improved protected status.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Ducula mindorensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22691622A93318964. . Downloaded on 24 September 2018.
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