||(Bourns & Worcester, 1894)
||Tawitawi Brown-dove, Dark-eared Brown Dove
||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
||Phapitreron cinereiceps (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) has been split into P. cinereiceps and P. brunneiceps following Collar et al. (1999). Because this split was made in a BirdLife publication, the justification is repeated here in full (but the references are not supplied). The form cinereiceps does not differ from P. brunneiceps in its "redder hindneck" (contra del Hoyo et al. 1997) but possesses a matt grey crown, more olive back, rusty not vinous-grey belly, brown not buff vent, and grey not buff undertail-coverts (as judged from CMNH 91B2583), and on this basis merits specific recognition from P. brunneiceps, with which it has in recent years (despite Manuel 1936a) been united under the name "Dark-eared Brown-dove" (the detailed original descriptions of both forms are adjacent in Bourns and Worcester 1894). It is arguably more distinct from brunneiceps than brunneiceps is from Amethyst Brown-dove P. amethystina, the latter only being recognised as representatives of separate species when their sympatry on Mt McKinley, Mindanao, was noted (Dickinson et al. 1991). Rand (1970b) stated that on Mindanao cinereiceps (i.e. brunneiceps) and amethystina both occur from 900 to 1,350 m, but that only the latter was found at altitudes above this; there may thus be a partial difference in altitudinal preference.
||27 cm. Medium-large, generally brown-coloured dove. Matt grey head merges into purplish-glossed brown hindneck and nape. Rest of upperparts warm, dark olive-brownish. Warm brown underparts, tinged rusty, particularly on belly, becoming brown on vent, with grey undertail-coverts. Similar spp. Dark-eared Brown-dove P. brunneiceps has brown crown, vinous-grey belly, buff vent and undertail-coverts. Possibly confusable with Sulu Bleeding-heart Gallicolumba menagei if seen poorly, and smaller Emerald Dove Chalcophaps indica which has green upperparts and white forehead. Voice Accelerating series of hooting notes sounding like a bouncing ping-pong ball. Hints Most often heard only. Generally encountered solitarily or in pairs.
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
||Allen, D., Hutchinson, R. & Tabaranza, B.
||Benstead, P., Bird, J., Butchart, S., Lowen, J., Taylor, J.
This species probably has a very small population and has presumably undergone a very rapid population reduction based on a decline in the extent of its forest habitat, which is now restricted to a few remaining small fragments within a very small range. It is therefore classified as Endangered.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2008 – Endangered (EN)
- 2007 – Endangered (EN)
- 2004 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2000 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 1996 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1994 – Not Recognized (NR)
- 1988 – Not Recognized (NR)
|Range Description:|| Phapitreron cinereiceps is endemic to the Sulu archipelago in the Philippines, where it is restricted to the island of Tawitawi and adjacent Sanga-sanga (Collar et al. 1999). On Tawitawi, there are recent records from four sites, including Languyan, Lubbuk and Tarawakan. On Sanga-sanga, it was recorded at one site in c.1987, but is almost certainly extinct there as the island retains virtually no forest. It was common at Tarawakan in 1996 and early 2008 (D. Allen in litt. 2008). The Tawitawi population is assumed to be very small, but the species is apparently shy and, as such, may not be as rare as feared. An estimated 250-300 km2 of forest remained on Tawitawi some time prior to 2001, although much of this has been selectively logged (Mallari et al. 2001). The species was heard there regularly in both primary and secondary forest during a field visit in January 2012 (R. Hutchinson in litt. 2012). The rate at which remaining tracts have been cleared for oil-palm plantations is thought to be lower than was feared previously, but it is still presumably being degraded very rapidly.|
|♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||620|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|♦ Upper elevation limit (metres):||500|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|