||Alopecoenas hoedtii (Schlegel, 1871)
||Wetar Ground-dove, Wetar Ground Dove, Wetar Ground-Dove
Gallicolumba hoedtii (Schlegel, 1871)
||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
||Alopecoenas hoedtii (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Gallicolumba.
||27 cm. Medium-small, terrestrial dove. Male has light blue-grey head becoming greyish-white on throat. Reddish-brown hindneck, paler on sides of neck and fading to pale cream on breast, strongly demarcated from blackish belly. Narrow band of shining purple on breast-sides and carpals. Chestnut upperparts. Female much more uniform, with light rusty-chestnut head, neck and breast, and olive-brown upperparts and belly. Similar spp. Juvenile Emerald Dove Chalcophaps indica has some green on wings and mantle and pale belly and forehead. Voice A short, soft, but quite penetrating two-note whu-wup, sometimes changed into a three-note call by the addition of a brief guttural trrr (C. Trainor in litt 2007).
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
||Bishop, K.D. & Trainor, C.
||Benstead, P., Gilroy, J., Pilgrim, J., Taylor, J., North, A., Martin, R
This species qualifies as Endangered because it is thought to have suffered a very rapid population decline which is expected to continue as a result of severe lowland habitat loss and hunting. It appears that a healthy population survives on Wetar, but further surveys are required to establish its overall status.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2012 – Endangered (EN)
- 2008 – Endangered (EN)
- 2006 – Endangered (EN)
- 2004 – Endangered (EN)
- 2000 – Endangered (EN)
- 1996 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1994 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1988 – Threatened (T)
|Range Description:||Alopecoenas hoedtii occurs in West Timor and Wetar, Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia, and Timor-Leste. On Wetar, it was previously known from fewer than 20 specimens collected at unspecified localities around 1900, with eight birds collected in five days in 1902. No records were made during a very brief visit to the island in 1990 (K. D. Bishop in litt. 2007, Trainor et al. undated), but visits in 2008 and 2009 produced numerous records (and photographs of the species), with perhaps more than 100 birds along the Naumatang Gorge. A flock of at least 40 birds was observed and a total population of possibly over 100 estimated for Redong Island (Trainor et al. 2009a,b). It has been recorded at only three localities in West Timor (including only one record during a nine-week survey in 1993), where it is presumably rare, although possibly overlooked. In 2004, a male bird was confiscated from a bird trapper in Dili (Lambert et al. 2006). The trapper claimed to have caught his birds on the south coast of Timor-Leste, in the Natarbora region (Manututo District) (Lambert et al. 2006). Subsequent surveys in 2005 close to the border with Indonesia, in the vicinity of Desa Foho Lulik (Tilomar sub-district), found at least four, and perhaps five, calling birds (Lambert et al. 2006).|
|♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||55300|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Yes||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Number of Locations:||11-100||♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|♦ Upper elevation limit (metres):||950|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There are estimated to be fewer than 10,000 individuals, possibly even fewer than 3,000, on Wetar. The species appears to be rare on Timor, therefore the global population is conservatively placed in the band for 1,500-7,000 mature individuals. This equates to 2, 500-9,999 individuals in total.|
Trend Justification: Rapid population declines are suspected to be occurring in line with high rates of habitat loss, as well as pressure from wild bird trappers, within the species's range.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|♦ Number of mature individuals:||1500-7000||♦ Continuing decline of mature individuals:||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations:||No||♦ Population severely fragmented:||No|
|♦ No. of subpopulations:||2-100||♦ Continuing decline in subpopulations:||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:||No||♦ All individuals in one subpopulation:||No|
Habitat destruction in West and Timor-Leste has been very extensive, and is presumably the primary threat. Three recently identified IBAs contain much of the remaining tropical monsoon-forest in Timor-Leste (approximately 652 km2) (Trainor 2002). Tropical forests now only cover an estimated 4% of West Timor, scattered in seven unprotected patches that are continually declining in size due to intensive grazing and burning. Forest cover in Timor-Leste declined by 14% between 1989 and 1999 (Bouma and Kobryn 2004). Plans to increase tourist infrastructure in Timor-Leste (ETAN 2008) may have serious impacts on suitable habitat for the species. In addition, pigeons are apparently hunted extensively on Timor, a factor that must have contributed to the decline of this species. The species's habits of remaining on the ground for prolonged periods and only flying short distances when flushed may make it particularly susceptible to hunting in easy to access lowland areas, although hunting pressure has been noted to be low on Wetar, perhaps because much of the island is inaccessible without climbing ropes (Trainor et al. 2009b, C. Trainor in litt. 2016). Extensive forest remained on Wetar until at least 1990 (K. D. Bishop in litt. 2007), but illegal logging and the development of gold mines may threaten the remaining population. The species seems restricted mostly to lowland gallery forest on Wetar (0-250m), which now covers only c.15% of the island's area (R. Fisher via Colin Trainor in litt. 2016). The clearance of forest for cultivation, especially plantations of cash crops, is likely to increase as a threat (Trainor et al. 2009a), although the island's rugged terrain means that most of its land area is difficult to access and unsuitable for agriculture (C. Trainor in litt. 2008). Mining activities on Wetar have had a limited impact so far, but are expected to expand, and this matched with corruption of mining companies poses an increasing threat (C. Trainor in litt. 2016). Road-building projects, including a planned ring-road, also poses a significant threat to forest (Trainor et al. 2009a,b).