Alopecoenas stairi 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Columbiformes Columbidae

Scientific Name: Alopecoenas stairi
Species Authority: (Gray, 1856)
Common Name(s):
English Shy Ground-dove, Friendly Ground-Dove, Tongan Ground Dove
Gallicolumba stairi (Gray, 1856)
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
Taxonomic Notes: Alopecoenas stairi (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Gallicolumba.
Identification information: 26 cm. Medium-sized, apparently dark brown terrestrial dove. Overall colour warm rufous-brown, males with greyish nape and crown, both sexes with variable iridescence-lustre on the upperparts. Male always has pinkish breast shield bordered with white. Females are dimorphic in Fiji and Tonga, some bearing a similar breast shield to the male. Similar spp. White-throated Pigeon Columba vitiensis is much larger and less timid, also grey-black and has distinct white throat (except immatures). Also rarely, if ever, seen on the ground in forest. Voice Resonant, mournful coo-a-coo, monotonously repeated. Displaying males perch on branches while cooing.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable C2a(i) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Symes, A. & Butchart, S.
Contributor(s): Dutson, G., Freifeld, H., Kretzschmar, J., Masibalavu, V., Roberts, H., Solek, C., Watling, D. & Tye, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Derhé, M., Mahood, S., O'Brien, A., Stattersfield, A., Temple, H. & Khwaja, N.
This species has been extirpated throughout much of its range, and the small and fragmented population that remains is suspected to be declining. It therefore qualifies as Vulnerable.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Vulnerable (VU)
2006 Vulnerable (VU)
2004 Vulnerable (VU)
2000 Vulnerable (VU)
1994 Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
1988 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Alopecoenas stairi has a discontinuous and poorly-documented distribution in central Polynesia including Fiji, where it is described as scarce on the four larger islands, but common on small offshore islands such as Makodroga and Namenalala (Watling 2000, V. Masibalavu in litt. 2012); Tonga, where a healthy population survives on the isolated and largely undisturbed island of Late (Baptista et al. 1997) with others on Fonualei (D. Watling in litt. 2007), a few smaller islands in Vava'u, and formerly, or perhaps still, on a few islands in the Ha'apai and Nomuka groups; Samoa, where in recent years it has only been seen breeding on the tiny islands of Nu'utele, where the population numbered at least 26 individuals in 2009 (Baptista et al. 1997, A. Tye in litt. 2012), and Nu'ulua, where the population numbered at least 6 individuals in the same year (H. Roberts in litt. 2009, A. Tye in litt. 2012), with one injured bird recovered from the main island of Upolu in 2006 (A. Tye in litt. 2012); American Samoa, where there was a sighting in 1993 on the island of Ofu (Baptista et al. 1997) and another in 1996 on Olosega (H. Freifeld in litt. 1999), and on the islands of Wallis and Futuna (to France). In 1995, the only population found in a study on Vava'u was six birds in a large forest remnant on Uta Vava'u, but this area was being logged and the species is therefore unlikely to survive there (Steadman and Freifeld 1998). Recent surveys have found this species to be widespread but patchy and at low population densities on the larger Fijian islands, recording an average of 0.11 birds/hour equating to c.1 bird/km2, mostly calling males. The species was recorded at about 50% of the sites surveyed (16/34 sites), which were selected to be the densest old-growth rainforest (G. Dutson in litt. 2005). Unlike on Samoa and Tonga, there is no evidence that the species is declining on Fiji faster than the rate of forest loss or degradation which is estimated at 0.5-0.8%/year (Claasen 1991, G. Dutson in litt. 2005). The species remains very rare in American Samoa, Samoa, Tonga and Wallis and Futuna.

Countries occurrence:
American Samoa (American Samoa); Fiji; Samoa; Tonga; Wallis and Futuna
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 18400
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Number of Locations: 11-100
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Upper elevation limit (metres): 1500
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Recent surveys have found this species to be widespread but patchy and at low population densities on the larger Fijian islands. Surveys recorded an average of 0.11 birds / hour (a total of 54 birds). Estimating an average pace 1 km / hour and an effective detection distance of 50 m each side of the trail suggests that about 1 bird was detected per km2, mostly calling males. There are a number of likely errors in this estimate, especially the number of silent birds overlooked. The species was recorded at about 50% of the sites surveyed (16/34 sites) which were pre-selected to be the densest old-growth rainforest. If it assumed to occur in 50% of the forest, which covers about 40% of the species' Fijian EOO of about 17,500 km2, the total population is estimated to be 2,500-9,999 birds (G. Dutson in litt. 2005). This equates to 3,750-14,999 individuals, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.

Trend Justification:  On Fiji the species is declining in line with habitat loss, and probably the affects of introduced mongooses; elsewhere hunting is an additional threat. The species's global population is suspected to be declining at a moderate rate.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 2500-9999 Continuing decline of mature individuals: Yes
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
No. of subpopulations: 2-100 Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It is found in both scrubby bush and bamboo thickets on smaller islands and lowland and montane forest on larger ones. It feeds on seeds, fruit, buds, young leaves, snails, insects and caterpillars on the forest floor and in the undergrowth (Watling 1982, Clunie 1984).

Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Unknown
Generation Length (years): 6.6
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): It appears particularly sensitive to disturbance, usually leaving areas with logging or planting activities within days of occurrence, and not re-inhabiting even five years after the cessation of human activity (J. S. Kretzschmar in litt. 2000). The reasons for this may relate to changes in forest characteristics (e.g. leaf-litter, food-resources), structure (e.g. openness) or invasion by ground predators, especially mongoose Herpestes auropunctatus, which are present on both the two larger islands in Fiji (J. S. Kretzschmar in litt. 2000, V. Masibalavu in litt. 2007). The major threat to the small Samoan population is predation by Polynesian rat Rattus exulans (H. Roberts in litt. 2009).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
This species occurs in a number of protected areas, including Sovi Basin and Taveuni reserves on Fiji, and the Aleipata Islands on Samoa (G. Dutson in litt. 2005). The Aleipata Project was implemented in May 2009 which involved the transfer of the birds from Samoa (Nu'utele and Nu'ulua) to a captive holding and breeding facility on another island. Twenty-three doves are currently being held. After removal, rat poison was broadcast via helicopter over both islands. After rat eradication has been determined successful the birds will be repatriated to the islands (H. Roberts in litt. 2009). This process has been delayed with the re-establishment of rats on Nu'utele, but Nu'ulua may be rat-free (A. Tye in litt. 2012).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct surveys throughout its range to assess its distribution, population numbers and conservation requirements. Consider setting aside an area of protected forest. Assess the feasibility of controlling the mongoose Herpestes auropunctatus.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Alopecoenas stairi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22691042A38294753. . Downloaded on 01 December 2015.
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