Gallicolumba crinigera 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Columbiformes Columbidae

Scientific Name: Gallicolumba crinigera
Species Authority: (Pucheran, 1853)
Common Name(s):
English Mindanao Bleeding-heart
Gallicolumba criniger criniger Collar et al. (1994)
Gallicolumba criniger criniger BirdLife International (2000)
Gallicolumba criniger criniger Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993)
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
Taxonomic Notes: Gender agreement of species name follows David and Gosselin (2002a).
Identification information: 30 cm. Medium-sized, short-tailed, ground-dwelling pigeon. Large blood-red central patch to otherwise white throat and breast. Iridescent bronzy-green crown, nape, upper mantle and breast-sides (forming an incomplete breast-band). Dark chestnut rest of upperparts with broad greyish bands across wing-coverts. Deep buff belly becoming creamy-white on vent. Subspecies show slight variation in breast pattern. Voice Thought to be a repeated, cooing woo-oo. Hints Feeds on forest floor. Shy, tends to run from danger, typically only flying short distances when flushed.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd;C2a(i) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2012-05-03
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S.
Contributor(s): Allen, D. & Ibanez, J.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Bird, J., Butchart, S., Lowen, J., Taylor, J. & Symes, A.
Forest clearance within this species's range must have led to a rapid reduction of its small, fragmented population; a trend which is set to continue. For these reasons it is classified as Vulnerable.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2012 Vulnerable (VU)
2008 Vulnerable (VU)
2007 Vulnerable (VU)
2004 Endangered (EN)
2000 Endangered (EN)
1996 Vulnerable (VU)
1994 Vulnerable (VU)
1988 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Gallicolomba crinigera is endemic to the Philippines, where it is known from Samar, Leyte, Bohol, Dinagat, Mindanao and Basilan (Collar et al. 1999). There are records from c.35 localities, but since 1980 it has only been recorded from Rajah Sikatuna National Park on Bohol, Bislig on Mindanao and during recent surveys on Mount Hamiguitan and Mount Hilong-hilong in eastern Mindanao (J. Ibanez in litt. 2007). It always appears to have been rare throughout its range, although its aptitude for self-concealment may mean that it is under-recorded. Nevertheless, a substantial population decline is likely to have occurred.

Countries occurrence:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 94500
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Number of Locations: 11-100
Continuing decline in number of locations: Yes
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Upper elevation limit (metres): 750
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population size is preliminarily estimated to fall into the band 1,000-2,499 mature individuals. This equates to 1,500-3,749 individuals in total, rounded here to 1,500-4,000 individuals.

Trend Justification:  A rapid and on-going population decline is suspected on the basis of rates of habitat loss.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 1000-2499 Continuing decline of mature individuals: Yes
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
No. of subpopulations: 2-100 Continuing decline in subpopulations: Yes
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No
No. of individuals in largest subpopulation: 1-89

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It inhabits primary and secondary lowland and transitional dipterocarp forest below 750 m. It is highly terrestrial, favouring flat areas with only sparse undergrowth, particularly in dry, coastal areas. There is no evidence of seasonal movements, but a degree of nomadism or altitudinal displacement might be anticipated, perhaps linked to the rains (March-June), when it appears to breed.

Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes
Generation Length (years): 6.6
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The near-total loss of lowland forest throughout its range has caused its decline. In the late 1980s, forest cover was estimated at just 29% on Mindanao, and as little as 433 km2 of old-growth dipterocarp forest remained on Samar and Leyte, with most lowland forest leased to logging concessions and mining applications. Dinagat has lost practically all lowland forest as a result of illegal logging and, particularly, chromite and nickel surface-mining. Bohol is thought to retain only 4% forest cover, with tree-cutting, agricultural expansion and soil erosion all acting as threats to Rajah Sikatuna National Park. Forest at Bislig on Mindanao is being cleared under concession and re-planted with exotic trees for paper production. Elsewhere in eastern Mindanao where the largest old growth dipterocarp forest remain, illegal logging and mining persist at varying levels of intensity. In 2006, DENR-CARAGA Region confiscated 41,232 pieces or 12,998.27 cubic metres of illegally cut logs, amounting to around Php 18 million. Eliminating illegal logging remains difficult, with very limited capacity and logistics allotted by the government for monitoring and law enforcement. There are 51 mineral production sharing agreements (MPSA) at various levels of exploration and extraction approved since 1990 in eastern Mindanao alone. In the Tumadgo Peak IBA, almost 70% of unprotected dipterocarp and cloud forest is under MPSAs. Only 22% of the whole IBA, mostly high-elevation forest, is protected as wildlife sanctuary. Trapping for food and trade is a problem for all terrestrial birds in the Philippines.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
It has been recorded recently in a number of protected areas, e.g. Rajah Sikatuna National Park. Other areas, now afforded protection, where it formerly occurred (and may still occur) include Mt Malindang National Park, Mt Hilong-hilong (which includes a watershed reserve) and Mt Matutum Forest Reserve (a proposed national park). There is a stakeholder move to expand the coverage of the Mount Hamiguitan (Tumadgo Peak) Wildlife Sanctuary to include the lowland forests. A 7,000-hectare nesting site of the Philippine Eagle which includes Mindanao Bleeding Heart habitat was also recently declared by a local government as protected in Mount Hamiguitan (J. Ibanez in litt. 2007).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct further surveys in remaining tracts of suitable habitat and areas with historical records, particularly on Samar and Leyte. Continue to advocate the effective protection of (possible) key sites. Propose remaining forests found to support the species for establishment as protected areas. Promote more effective enforcement of laws relating to hunting and trapping.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2013. Gallicolumba crinigera. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T22690991A49897502. . Downloaded on 29 November 2015.
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