|Scientific Name:||Gallicolumba crinigera|
|Species Authority:||(Pucheran, 1853)|
Gallicolumba criniger criniger Collar et al. (1994)
Gallicolumba criniger criniger BirdLife International (2000)
Gallicolumba criniger criniger Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993)
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Gender agreement of species name follows David and Gosselin (2002a).|
|Identification information:||30 cm. Medium-sized, short-tailed, ground-dwelling pigeon. Large blood-red central patch to otherwise white throat and breast. Iridescent bronzy-green crown, nape, upper mantle and breast-sides (forming an incomplete breast-band). Dark chestnut rest of upperparts with broad greyish bands across wing-coverts. Deep buff belly becoming creamy-white on vent. Subspecies show slight variation in breast pattern. Voice Thought to be a repeated, cooing woo-oo. Hints Feeds on forest floor. Shy, tends to run from danger, typically only flying short distances when flushed.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd;C2a(i) ver 3.1|
|Contributor(s):||Allen, D. & Ibanez, J.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Benstead, P., Bird, J., Butchart, S., Lowen, J., Taylor, J. & Symes, A.|
Forest clearance within this species's range must have led to a rapid reduction of its small, fragmented population; a trend which is set to continue. For these reasons it is classified as Vulnerable.
|Previously published Red List assessments:||
|Range Description:||Gallicolomba crinigera is endemic to the Philippines, where it is known from Samar, Leyte, Bohol, Dinagat, Mindanao and Basilan (Collar et al. 1999). There are records from c.35 localities, but since 1980 it has only been recorded from Rajah Sikatuna National Park on Bohol, Bislig on Mindanao and during recent surveys on Mount Hamiguitan and Mount Hilong-hilong in eastern Mindanao (J. Ibanez in litt. 2007). It always appears to have been rare throughout its range, although its aptitude for self-concealment may mean that it is under-recorded. Nevertheless, a substantial population decline is likely to have occurred.|
|Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Yes|
|Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No|
|Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||94500|
|Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|Number of Locations:||11-100|
|Continuing decline in number of locations:||Yes|
|Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|Upper elevation limit (metres):||750|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population size is preliminarily estimated to fall into the band 1,000-2,499 mature individuals. This equates to 1,500-3,749 individuals in total, rounded here to 1,500-4,000 individuals.
Trend Justification: A rapid and on-going population decline is suspected on the basis of rates of habitat loss.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It inhabits primary and secondary lowland and transitional dipterocarp forest below 750 m. It is highly terrestrial, favouring flat areas with only sparse undergrowth, particularly in dry, coastal areas. There is no evidence of seasonal movements, but a degree of nomadism or altitudinal displacement might be anticipated, perhaps linked to the rains (March-June), when it appears to breed.|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Generation Length (years):||6.6|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Major Threat(s):||The near-total loss of lowland forest throughout its range has caused its decline. In the late 1980s, forest cover was estimated at just 29% on Mindanao, and as little as 433 km2 of old-growth dipterocarp forest remained on Samar and Leyte, with most lowland forest leased to logging concessions and mining applications. Dinagat has lost practically all lowland forest as a result of illegal logging and, particularly, chromite and nickel surface-mining. Bohol is thought to retain only 4% forest cover, with tree-cutting, agricultural expansion and soil erosion all acting as threats to Rajah Sikatuna National Park. Forest at Bislig on Mindanao is being cleared under concession and re-planted with exotic trees for paper production. Elsewhere in eastern Mindanao where the largest old growth dipterocarp forest remain, illegal logging and mining persist at varying levels of intensity. In 2006, DENR-CARAGA Region confiscated 41,232 pieces or 12,998.27 cubic metres of illegally cut logs, amounting to around Php 18 million. Eliminating illegal logging remains difficult, with very limited capacity and logistics allotted by the government for monitoring and law enforcement. There are 51 mineral production sharing agreements (MPSA) at various levels of exploration and extraction approved since 1990 in eastern Mindanao alone. In the Tumadgo Peak IBA, almost 70% of unprotected dipterocarp and cloud forest is under MPSAs. Only 22% of the whole IBA, mostly high-elevation forest, is protected as wildlife sanctuary. Trapping for food and trade is a problem for all terrestrial birds in the Philippines.|
Conservation Actions Underway
It has been recorded recently in a number of protected areas, e.g. Rajah Sikatuna National Park. Other areas, now afforded protection, where it formerly occurred (and may still occur) include Mt Malindang National Park, Mt Hilong-hilong (which includes a watershed reserve) and Mt Matutum Forest Reserve (a proposed national park). There is a stakeholder move to expand the coverage of the Mount Hamiguitan (Tumadgo Peak) Wildlife Sanctuary to include the lowland forests. A 7,000-hectare nesting site of the Philippine Eagle which includes Mindanao Bleeding Heart habitat was also recently declared by a local government as protected in Mount Hamiguitan (J. Ibanez in litt. 2007).
Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct further surveys in remaining tracts of suitable habitat and areas with historical records, particularly on Samar and Leyte. Continue to advocate the effective protection of (possible) key sites. Propose remaining forests found to support the species for establishment as protected areas. Promote more effective enforcement of laws relating to hunting and trapping.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2013. Gallicolumba crinigera. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T22690991A49897502. . Downloaded on 24 May 2016.|
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