||Gallicolumba keayi (Clarke, 1900)
||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
||30 cm. Medium-sized, short-tailed, ground-dwelling pigeon. Blood-red, narrow central patch to otherwise white throat and breast. Iridescent green crown, nape, lesser wing-coverts, upper mantle and breast-sides (forming an incomplete breast-band). Dark chestnut rest of upperparts, glossed deep reddish-purple, with broad greyish-white band across inner wing-coverts. Buff belly merging into creamy-white vent and undertail-coverts. Voice. Two monosyllabic hu calls, sometimes huhu call inserted into bouts of song. The songs consist of trills of rapidly repeated syllables. It can also be distinguished from other doves e.g. Emerald Dove and White-eared Brown Dove by its soft coo and a high-pitched uu-oom (Curio 2001). Hints Feeds on the forest floor. Shy, tends to run from danger, typically only flying short distances when flushed. Male utters long-distance territorial calls before and after being flushed by humans (Curio 2001).
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
||Bucol, J., Carino, A., Hornbuckle, J. & Hospodarsky, P.
||Benstead, P., Bird, J., Butchart, S., Calvert, R., Lowen, J., Symes, A., Taylor, J., Ashpole, J, Westrip, J.
This species has an extremely small, severely fragmented population that is likely to be undergoing a continuing decline owing to forest loss on the two islands where it occurs. For these reasons, it is listed as Critically Endangered.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2016 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2015 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2013 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2012 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2010 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2009 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2008 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2006 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2004 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2000 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 1996 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 1994 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 1988 – Threatened (T)
|Range Description:||Gallicolumba keayi is endemic to the Philippines, where it occurs on Panay and Negros (Collar et al. 1999). On Panay, it was recorded in 1997 at two sites on the north-west peninsula, having been reported by locals at five sites earlier in the decade. Since then birds have been recorded nesting in the same area and further observations of the species have been made (Slade et al. 2005). On Negros, it was fairly common in the 19th century, but had become extremely rare by the 1930s. Since 1980, it was recorded at just one locality (above Mambucal), despite several weeks of surveys, with unconfirmed local reports from six additional localities. Recent research identified a few small populations in southern Negros (Cariño et al. 2007), but it may now be extinct in the north (J. Hornbuckle in litt. 2005, P. Hospodarsky in litt. 2010). It seems unlikely that more than a few hundred individuals remain on each island, although as Panay retains more forest cover, it is likely that this population is larger (P. Hospodarsky in litt. 2010). |
|♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||41100|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Yes||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Number of Locations:||2-5||♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No||♦ Lower elevation limit (metres):||300|
|♦ Upper elevation limit (metres):||1000|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
Conservation Actions Underway
Recent records come from Mt Canlaon Natural Park, Mantikil, and in the Calinawan Community-based wildlife sanctuary on Negros (A. Bucol in litt. 2007). Local reports also derive from the North Negros Forest Reserve, and another area where it was formerly recorded (Mt Talinis/Twin Lakes on Negros) has been receiving funding for conservation actions (A. Bucol in litt. 2007). In the mid-1990s, the species featured on a bilingual environmental awareness poster as part of the "Only in the Philippines" series, and also featured in a public awareness caravan through Negros in November 2005-November 2006 (Cariño et al. 2007). It was used also as main logo in a photo exhibit "Wet and Wild" held at the Provincial Convention Center, Oriental Negros in November 2007 (A. Bucol in litt. 2007). It has been studied as part of the Philippine Endemic Species Project (PhilConserve) (Slade et al. 2005). The North Negros Forest Natural Park was declared by Presidential Decree in 2006. Efforts are ongoing to strengthen protected area management and involve Negros Forests and Ecological Foundation, Inc. (NFEFI) and Silliman University - Angelo King Center for Research and Environmental Management (SUAKCREM) as well as other existing local non-government organisations and people's organisations in the protection of the species. It was bred for the first time in captivity in 2007 at the Center for Tropical Conservation Studies, Philippines (H. Roberts in litt. 2009), and a very small number of captive individuals have been bred at the A. Y. Reyes Zoological and Botanical Gardens: in 2007, two chicks hatched, although one died (Hirschfeld 2008). Three birds salvaged from the illegal bird trade in captivity have produced eight young so far, and the total captive population now numbers 18 birds (Hirschfeld 2008). Captive breeding is being orchestrated by the Philippine Biodiversity Conservation Foundation, and there are plans for future re-introductions (P. Hospodarsky in litt. 2010).
Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct fieldwork in all areas from which the species has been locally reported and all other sites where suitable habitat remains, including the Bulabong Puti-an National Park. Establish the proposed 100 km2 North-west Panay Peninsula National Park, where the species has recently been discovered, and develop captive breeding populations. Provide immediate effective protection for the North Negros Forest Reserve. Encourage careful reforestation activities around remaining forests and law enforcement to stop small-scale yet rampant illegal logging. Utilise education and awareness campaigns to aid the conservation of this species, including encouraging people not the hunt the species and to aid the regeneration of food plants (Cariño et al. 2007).