Caloenas nicobarica 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Columbiformes Columbidae

Scientific Name: Caloenas nicobarica (Linnaeus, 1758)
Common Name(s):
English Nicobar Pigeon, Nicobar Dove
Spanish Paloma de Nicobar
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Derhé, M., Mahood, S., North, A.
This species is classified as Near Threatened because throughout its wide range it is thought to be declining as a result of capture for food and the pet trade, habitat destruction and predation by introduced mammals.

Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Caloenas nicobarica is a small island specialist, it occurs on the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India, Mergui archipelago (Myeik Kyunzu), Myanmar, islands off south-west peninsular Thailand, islands around Peninsular Malaysia, islands off southern Cambodia and Vietnam, islands around Sumatra, Wallacea and Papua (formerly Irian Jaya), Indonesia, possibly also Timor-Leste, many islands in the Philippines, islands in Papua New Guinea and throughout the Solomon Islands, plus Palau (race pelewensis). Generally scarce throughout its range, it is most abundant on the smallest, least disturbed islands. The distinctive race pelewensis was thought to still number up to 1,000 birds in 1985.


Countries occurrence:
Cambodia; India; Indonesia; Malaysia; Myanmar; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Solomon Islands; Thailand; Viet Nam
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:16200000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Upper elevation limit (metres):700
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as generally scarce to rare, although locally commoner on smaller islets (Gibbs et al. 2001).

Trend Justification:  The species is suspected to be declining at a moderately rapid rate, owing to habitat destruction, trapping for food and the pet trade as well as the effects of introduced predators.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:UnknownContinuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It normally breeds, often in dense colonies, on extremely small, wooded offshore islands and forages in situ or on adjacent mainland (or larger island) areas up to at least 500 m. It prefers uninhabited and remote islets with original forest vegetation, though these must be close enough to large areas of lowland rainforest which it requires for foraging. Nests in trees and shrubs and has a clutch size of one (Pratt and Beehler 2015).

Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Generation Length (years):6.6
Movement patterns:Nomadic

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Trapping for food, the pet trade and perhaps for their gizzard-stones is a serious threat. The clearance of small islands for plantations and the adjacent areas of lowland forest which it requires for foraging must have reduced numbers. Predation by rats Rattus spp., cats and other alien predators at nesting grounds can affect large numbers of birds due to the colonial nature of the species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix I.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Research population size and trends. Protect known breeding islands from clearance for plantations. Preserve areas of lowland forest close to breeding islands. Educate people who live close to breeding islands to prevent trapping for food and the pet trade. Eradicate rats Rattus spp., cats and other alien predators on particularly important breeding islands. Prevent further introductions of alien predators to breeding islands.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Caloenas nicobarica. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22690974A93297507. . Downloaded on 15 October 2018.
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