|Scientific Name:||Starnoenas cyanocephala|
|Species Authority:||(Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.|
|Identification information:||30-33 cm. Stunningly marked, large quail-dove. Cinnamon-brown with spectacular head and throat marking. Blue crown, black eye-stripe and white facial stripe, black gorget bordered narrowly white below and bluish mottling on sides of throat. Voice Distinctive, two phrase call uuu-up, uuu-up, last note of each rising and ending abruptly. Hints Shy, but often in areas with ample leaf-litter.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered C2a(i) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Contributor(s):||Kirkconnell, A. & Mitchell, A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Benstead, P., Isherwood, I., Mahood, S., Pilgrim, J., Sharpe, C J, Wege, D.|
This species is extremely rare and has a very small population with extremely small subpopulations, and numbers are continuing to decline in response to hunting and habitat loss. For these reasons the species is classified as Endangered.
|Previously published Red List assessments:||
|Range Description:||Starnoenas cyanocephala is endemic to Cuba, where it was once common and widespread from Pinar del Río across to Guantánamo. It is now rare almost everywhere, and virtually extinct on the Isla de la Juventud and Isla de Pinos (A. Kirkconnell in litt. 1999). In the late 1980s, reasonable numbers were reported only from Zapata Swamp, and a more recent study found good numbers in the lowlands around Zapata, with another smaller, but significant, population in the mountains at La Güira in Pinar del Río province and another on Guanahacabibes peninsular (Wells and Mitchell 1995). Small numbers are also known or presumed to persist in several additional areas throughout the country (A. Mitchell in litt. 1998).|
Vagrant:Turks and Caicos Islands
|Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Yes|
|Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No|
|Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||28500|
|Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Yes|
|Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|Number of Locations:||11-100|
|Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population is estimated to number 1,000-2,499 individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 667-1,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 600-1,700 mature individuals. However, Leavelle (2008) recently estimated a much higher density than that used in these calculations, and so the population estimate may be revised upwards.
Trend Justification: There are no new data on trends, but the species is suspected to be declining at a slow or moderate rate, owing to excessive hunting, and habitat loss and degradation.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species occurs in the undergrowth of lowland forest including swampy areas, and occasionally in highland forest. It forages for seeds, berries and snails on the ground in dense forest and occasionally on forest tracks. It is generally found in pairs, but larger congregations have been recorded, with 18 birds at a water hole during the 1995 dry season (A. Mitchell in litt. 1998). Breeding takes place mainly between April and June, with nests placed on or close to the ground, often amongst tree roots or in stump cavities (A. Mitchell in litt. 1998), or higher up on a horizontal branch 2.5-8 m above the ground (Leavelle 2008, Kirkconnell and González 2008).
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Generation Length (years):||4.6|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Major Threat(s):||The combined and chronic effects of excessive hunting and habitat destruction have produced a large-scale decline. It has always been regarded as excellent eating, and is still trapped illegally using drop-traps baited with orange seeds (A. Mitchell in litt. 1998). Hurricanes may significantly affect the species by felling large areas of forest, such as happened in Zapata Swamp in 1996 (A. Mitchell in litt. 1998).|
Conservation Actions Underway
It is protected under national law and in the Zapata Swamp, but neither is enforced and hunting continues (A. Mitchell in litt. 1998). The only known highland population is protected within La Güira National Park (A. Mitchell in litt. 1998). Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey areas outside known sites, where the species may persist (A. Mitchell in litt. 1998). Immediately protect any populations discovered during these surveys. Conduct public awareness and education campaigns to highlight the plight of the species and reduce hunting pressure (A. Mitchell in litt. 1998). Enforce the protection afforded by protected areas.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2012. Starnoenas cyanocephala. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22690970A38969667. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012-1.RLTS.T22690970A38969667.en . Downloaded on 13 October 2015.|
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