Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Columbiformes Columbidae

Scientific Name: Leptotila ochraceiventris
Species Authority: Chapman, 1914
Common Name(s):
English Ochre-bellied Dove
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
Identification information: 23-25 cm. Small, ground-dwelling dove. Whitish-pink forehead, grading to rusty-pink on crown and iridescent purple on hind crown and upper mantle. Dark olive rest of upperparts, with some bronzy-green on mantle and wing-coverts. White throat, buff neck, vinaceous breast and rest of underparts largely whitish. Similar spp. Partially sympatric White-tipped Dove L. verreauxi is obviously larger. Voice Distinctive throaty rrroowww, repeated at ten-second intervals.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2c+3c+4c;B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v);C2a(i) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Flanagan, J. & Horstman, E.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Capper, D., Harding, M., Isherwood, I., Sharpe, C J, Stuart, T., Symes, A.
This species has a small and severely fragmented range and population, both of which are suffering from rapid rates of deforestation. It therefore qualifies as Vulnerable.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Vulnerable (VU)
2004 Vulnerable (VU)
2000 Vulnerable (VU)
1996 Vulnerable (VU)
1994 Vulnerable (VU)
1988 Threatened (T)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Leptotila ochraceiventris occurs in west Ecuador (Manabí, Los Ríos, Guayas, Chimborazo, El Oro and Loja) and north-west Peru (Tumbes, Piura and Lambayeque). The population is small and fragmented, and it is common only at Campo Verde in Tumbes Reserved Zone (within the Northwest Peru Biosphere Reserve), north-west Peru (Parker et al. 1995, H. Lloyd in litt. 2007).

Countries occurrence:
Ecuador; Peru
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 6500
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Number of Locations: 11-100
Continuing decline in number of locations: Yes
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Upper elevation limit (metres): 2625
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population is estimated to number 2,500-9,999 mature individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 3,750-14,999 individuals, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.

Trend Justification:  A rapid and on-going population decline is suspected on the basis of continued habitat destruction.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 2500-9999 Continuing decline of mature individuals: Yes
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: Yes
No. of subpopulations: 2-100 Continuing decline in subpopulations: Yes
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This inconspicuous dove inhabits tropical and subtropical forests, mainly at 500-1,800 m (with recent records at 80-200 m in Guayas [Baptista et al. 1997, Pople et al. 1997]), but also to sea-level and occasionally 2,625 m. It occurs in dry deciduous, wet lower montane, semi-deciduous cloud-forest, humid cloud-forest, evergreen moist forest and, prior to their destruction, moist forests of the río Guayas basin and Cordillera de Colonche. It is also found in heavily degraded forest, scrub and hedges, but it is unknown whether such habitats support viable populations. Generally solitary or in pairs (Parker and Carr 1992), but sometimes in groups of 3-7 (Parker et al. 1995), it favours areas with a dense understorey of small trees and woody vines (Baptista et al. 1997). Inter-habitat, seasonal movements are apparently undertaken. Its ecology is virtually unknown.

Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes
Generation Length (years): 4.2
Movement patterns: Full Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Below 900 m, the rate of deforestation in west Ecuador, in 1958-1988, was 57% per decade, although in higher parts of the species's range, with a steeper terrain and harsher climate, the process has been slower, and a greater proportion of forest is extant (Dodson and Gentry 1991). Overgrazing degrades the forest understorey which is this species' habitat (Ridgely and Greenfield 2001). All pigeon species are hunted, but L. ochraceiventris is not specifically targeted (Jiggins et al. 1999).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
It occurs in several protected areas, including Tumbes Reserved Zone (which protects a large area and range of forest-types and presumably supports a viable population) (Dodson and Gentry 1991), Laquipampa Reserved Zone (J. Flanagan in litt. 2001), Machalilla National Park (Guayas/Manabí), Manglares-Churute Ecological Reserve and Cerro Blanco Protection Forest (Guayas) (Parker and Carr 1992, Wege and Long 1995, Pople et al. 1997). The 776 km2 partially forested Chongón-Colonche Protection Forest is the nucleus of a reforestation project (E. Horstmann in litt. 2000) and may support the species. A communal reserve is being established at Quebrada Limon (H. Lloyd in litt. 2007).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Assess seasonal reliance on particular forest-types. Control threats to habitat within protected areas. Expand protected areas to include adjacent forest remnants and connect such fragments. Map forest in the Cordillera Chongón-Colonche to identify sites for protection (E. Horstmann in litt. 2000). Assess impact of hunting.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Leptotila ochraceiventris. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22690895A37886177. . Downloaded on 10 October 2015.
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