|Scientific Name:||Streptopelia turtur (Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A2abcde+3bcde+4abcde (Regional assessment) ver 3.1|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Ashpole, J, Burfield, I., Ieronymidou, C., Pople, R., Wheatley, H. & Wright, L|
European regional assessment: Vulnerable (VU)
EU27 regional assessment: Near Threatened (NT)
In Europe this numerous species is undergoing rapid population declines, and it is therefore classified as Vulnerable. Within the EU27 declines are moderately rapid and the regional classification here is Near Threatened.
|Range Description:||The breeding range of the nominate race of this species is largely confined to and covers most of Europe and the Canary Islands (Hagemeijer and Blair 1997). It is distributed from central and southern Britain east to Poland and northern Russia and south to the Mediterranean coast and on through Asia Minor (Baptista et al. 2013).|
Native:Albania; Andorra; Armenia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Faroe Islands; Finland; France; Georgia; Germany; Gibraltar; Greece; Hungary; Ireland; Italy; Latvia; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Malta; Moldova; Montenegro; Netherlands; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Russian Federation (European Russia); Serbia; Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Turkey; Ukraine; United Kingdom
Vagrant:Iceland; Norway; Svalbard and Jan Mayen
|Population:||The European population is estimated at 3,150,000-5,940,000 pairs, which equates to 6,310,000-11,900,000 mature individuals. The population in the EU27 is estimated at 2,340,000-4,050,000 pairs, which equates to 4,670,000-8,110,000 mature individuals. For details of national estimates, see the Supplementary Material.|
Trend Justification: In Europe the population size is estimated to be decreasing by 30-49% in 15.9 years (three generations). In the EU27 the population size is estimated to be decreasing a rate approaching 30% in the same period. For details of national estimates, see attached PDF.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||The species uses hedges, borders of forest, groves, spinneys, coppices, young tree plantations, scrubby wasteland, woody marshes, scrub and garigue, all with agricultural areas nearby for feeding (Tucker & Heath 1994). It uses a wide variety of woodland types. It tolerates humans but does not breed close to towns or villages (Baptista et al. 2013). It breeds at low altitudes not exceeding 500 m in the temperate zone and up to 1,000?1,300 m in Mediterranean areas (Tucker & Heath 1994). Breeding commences in May. It lays two eggs (Baptista et al. 2013). The nest is a small platform of twigs lined with plant material and placed in the lowest parts of trees (Tucker & Heath 1994) and in shrubs and hedges. It mainly feeds on the ground taking seeds and fruits of weeds and cereals, but also berries, fungi and invertebrates. It is strongly migratory (Baptista et al. 2013), wintering south of the Sahara from Senegal east to Eritrea and Ethiopia (Tucker & Heath 1994).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||5.3|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Major Threat(s):||Transformation of agricultural land, including destruction of hedges, is thought to be an important factor in the decline of this species, also loss of semi-natural habitats. Changes in agriculture practices have several impacts on the species, as they can both reduce food supply and nesting habitat availability and it is likely that the decline in food is the main limiting factor rather than decline in nest site availability (Lutz 2006). Widespread use of chemical herbicides appears to also be a very serious factor, with consequent decline or elimination of many food plants. Hunting is also significant, during migration and in winter quarters; with annual toll in France computed at 40,000 birds (Baptista et al. 2013). The species is also vulnerable to infection by the protozoan parasite Trichomonas gallinae, which causes mortality (Stockdale et al. 2014). Severe drought in the Sahel zone is thought to be a possible factor in the decline as well as competition with Collared Dove (Streptopelia decaocto) (Lutz 2006).|
Conservation Actions Underway
CMS Appendix II. EU Birds Directive Annex II. In the UK, it is protected under the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 and Schedule 1 of the Wildlife (Northern Ireland) Order 1985.
Conservation Actions Proposed
Breeding and staging habitats should be managed (Lutz 2006), ensuring the conservation and re-creation of hedges with hawthorn (Crataegus) which is a favoured tree for breeding and also the reduction in agricultural herbicides (Tucker and Heath 1994). Restrictions on hunting to avoid affecting late breeding birds and birds during spring migration should be introduced and enforced. Annual national bag statistics where hunting takes place must be collected in order to develop a level of hunting which is sustainable. Research and population monitoring should be continued (Lutz 2006).
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2015. Streptopelia turtur. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T22690419A60008772.Downloaded on 18 January 2018.|
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