Patagioenas caribaea 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Columbiformes Columbidae

Scientific Name: Patagioenas caribaea
Species Authority: Jacquin, 1784
Common Name(s):
English Ring-tailed Pigeon
Columba caribaea Collar et al. (1994)
Columba caribaea Collar and Andrew (1988)
Columba caribaea BirdLife International (2004)
Columba caribaea BirdLife International (2000)
Columba caribaea Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993)
Columba caribaea Stotz et al. (1996)
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
Identification information: 41 cm. Large, grey and brown pigeon. Bluish-grey above, head and underparts pinkish-brown with bluish-green hindneck, black band across uppertail. Red eye and eye-ring. Female duller. Immature, brown-grey with reddish fringes on upperwing, and red-orange head and underparts. Similar spp. Plain Pigeon C. inornata lacks band in tail and has white in wings. Voice Guttural cru-cru-croooo descending on the last note, also repeated uhu-cooo with emphasis on last note.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B1ab(i,ii,iii,v);C2a(ii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Isherwood, I., Mahood, S., Sharpe, C J, Wege, D.
This species is classified as Vulnerable because anecdotal evidence and the many threats it faces indicate that the range and population must now be small, fragmented and declining.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Vulnerable (VU)
2004 Vulnerable (VU)
2000 Vulnerable (VU)
1996 Critically Endangered (CR)
1994 Critically Endangered (CR)
1988 Threatened (T)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Patagioenas caribaea is found throughout the wetter areas of Jamaica, but most notably in Cockpit Country, and the Blue and John Crow Mountains. It has been greatly reduced in numbers and range since the mid-19th century, however, it is highly seasonal in its use of foraging habitats and in flocking patterns, which makes trends difficult to track without systematic monitoring (Koenig in litt. 2007).

Countries occurrence:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 7100
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Number of Locations: 11-100
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Lower elevation limit (metres): 100
Upper elevation limit (metres): 2000
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population is estimated to number 2,500-9,999 mature individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 3,750-14,999 individuals, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.

Trend Justification:  No new data are available on the species's population size or trends, but it is suspected to be suffering an on-going decline of 10-19% over ten years, owing to hunting pressure and pressures on its habitat.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 2500-9999 Continuing decline of mature individuals: Yes
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: Yes
No. of subpopulations: 1 Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: Yes
No. of individuals in largest subpopulation: 100

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It inhabits relatively undisturbed humid forest and woodland, and wet limestone forest, at elevations of 100-2,000 m. It breeds mostly in the highlands in spring and summer (from late February to August), occurring locally to sea-level on the wetter, north side of the island (Raffaele et al. 1998, BirdLife Jamaica in litt. 1998, 2000). Some birds move to lower altitudes at certain times, but these movements are poorly understood (BirdLife Jamaica in litt. 1998, 2000). It feeds in small flocks on fruits and seeds high in the canopy, and large flocks are sometimes seen moving to different feeding locations (Raffaele et al. 1998, BirdLife Jamaica in litt. 1998, 2000). The nest is constructed high in a tall tree.

Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes
Generation Length (years): 6.6
Movement patterns: Full Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Unabating pressure from illegal hunting, logging and clearance for plantation agriculture is responsible for this species's ongoing decline (BirdLife Jamaica in litt. 1998, 2000). However, the potential for bauxite mining in Cockpit Country is the currently the most important threat for the important populations in west-central Jamaica (Koenig in litt. 2007).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
It is legally protected, but this is not enforced. Habitat in the Blue and John Crow Mountains has been declared a national park, but there is little enforcement or management (BirdLife Jamaica in litt. 1998, 2000). Funding is actively being sought for conservation in Cockpit Country (BirdLife Jamaica in litt. 1998, 2000) and current efforts are being directed to supporting Forestry Department and community-based Local Forest Management Committees to protect the Forest Reserves and private buffer lands in the Cockpit Country Conservation Area (Koenig in litt. 2007). There is an on-going, high profile public awareness campaign to prevent bauxite mining in Cockpit Country; Cockpit Country Stakeholders Group and Local Forest Management Committees are engaged in the process of voicing opposition to mining and having the area declared "closed to mining" by Minister's Discretion (Koenig in litt. 2007).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey to assess numbers and precise distribution. Prevent bauxite mining in Cockpit Country by declaring the area "closed to mining". Maintain corridors linking highland forests and lowland areas (BirdLife Jamaica in litt. 1998, 2000). Enforce legal protection. Ensure de facto protection of the national park in the Blue and John Crow Mountains (BirdLife Jamaica in litt. 1998, 2000).

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Patagioenas caribaea. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22690281A38905074. . Downloaded on 01 December 2015.
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