||Madeira Laurel-pigeon, Long-toed Pigeon, Trocaz Pigeon
||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
||38-40 cm. Dark grey and purple pigeon. Adult has blue-grey head and foreneck, grey glossed green sides of neck with bold patch of silver-tipped feathers. Slate grey scapulars and wing-coverts and black-brown flight feathers. Blue-grey back and rump. Reddish-purple breast and rest of underparts blue-grey. Slate black tail with broad, pale grey subterminal band. Red bill, pale yellow eye and red orbital ring. Red legs. Juvenile is duller and browner lacking glossed plumage. Voice Rhythmic, sonorous oo coo coo coo-coo.
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
||Oliveira, P., Menezes, D. & Sepúlveda, P.
||Capper, D., Peet, N., Ekstrom, J., Bird, J., Taylor, J.
This species is listed as Least Concern as, thanks to successful conservation efforts, it no longer approaches the thresholds for Vulnerable under any of the IUCN criteria. Although it has a very small range and small population, the species is now increasing in numbers.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2011 – Least Concern (LC)
- 2008 – Near Threatened (NT)
- 2004 – Near Threatened (NT)
- 2000 – Lower Risk/conservation dependent (LR/cd)
- 1996 – Lower Risk/conservation dependent (LR/cd)
- 1994 – Lower Risk/conservation dependent (LR/cd)
- 1988 – Threatened (T)
|Range Description:||Columba trocaz is endemic to Madeira and formerly the neighbouring island of Porto Santo, Portugal. It is found predominantly on the island's mountainous northern slopes, but can also be seen on a few isolated laurel forest pockets in the south. It was very abundant in the early years of human colonisation, but subsequently declined dramatically to c.2,700 birds in 1986 (Oliveira et al. 1999). However, the population recovered rapidly soon after the ban on hunting in 1986. There are now between 8,500 and 10,000 individuals (Oliveira et al. 2007, BirdLife International 2010, P. Sepúlveda in litt. 2011) in approximately 160 km2 of suitable habitat (P. Oliveira in litt. 1999, Oliveira et al. 1999). The species is now widespread throughout all areas of laurel forest, and has reoccupied many parts of its former range that it had previously deserted (Madeira National Park Service in litt. 2010).|
|♦ Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:||12||♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||160|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|♦ Upper elevation limit (metres):||850|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population is currently estimated to number between 8,500 and 10,000 individuals (P. Sepúlveda in litt. 2011), roughly equivalent to 5,700-6,700 mature individuals.|
Trend Justification: The species's population recovered rapidly following a ban on hunting in 1986. It has increased from an estimated low of 2,700 individuals to between 8,500 and 10,000 individuals today, although there is some fluctuation (Oliveira et al. 2007, Barov and Derhé 2011).
|Current Population Trend:||Increasing|
|♦ Number of mature individuals:||5700-6700||♦ Continuing decline of mature individuals:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations:||No||♦ Population severely fragmented:||No|
|♦ No. of subpopulations:||1||♦ Continuing decline in subpopulations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:||No||♦ All individuals in one subpopulation:||Yes|
|♦ No. of individuals in largest subpopulation:||100|