||Columba trocaz Heineken, 1829
||Madeira Laurel-pigeon, Long-toed Pigeon, Trocaz Pigeon
||Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
||38-40 cm. Dark grey and purple pigeon. Adult has blue-grey head and foreneck, grey glossed green sides of neck with bold patch of silver-tipped feathers. Slate grey scapulars and wing-coverts and black-brown flight feathers. Blue-grey back and rump. Reddish-purple breast and rest of underparts blue-grey. Slate black tail with broad, pale grey subterminal band. Red bill, pale yellow eye and red orbital ring. Red legs. Juvenile is duller and browner lacking glossed plumage. Voice Rhythmic, sonorous oo coo coo coo-coo.
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Gouveia, C., Menezes, D., Oliveira, P. & Sepúlveda, P.
||Ashpole, J, Bird, J., Capper, D., Ekstrom, J., Peet, N., Taylor, J., Symes, A., Westrip, J., Wheatley, H.
This species is listed as Least Concern as, thanks to successful conservation efforts, it no longer approaches the thresholds for Vulnerable under any of the IUCN criteria. Although it has a very small range and small population, the species is now increasing in numbers.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2016 – Least Concern (LC)
- 2012 – Least Concern (LC)
- 2011 – Least Concern (LC)
- 2008 – Near Threatened (NT)
- 2004 – Near Threatened (NT)
- 2000 – Lower Risk/conservation dependent (LR/cd)
- 1996 – Lower Risk/conservation dependent (LR/cd)
- 1994 – Lower Risk/conservation dependent (LR/cd)
- 1988 – Threatened (T)
|Range Description:||This species is endemic to Madeira and formerly the neighbouring island of Porto Santo, Portugal. It is found predominantly on the island's mountainous northern slopes, but can also be seen on a few isolated laurel forest pockets in the south. It was very abundant in the early years of human colonisation, but subsequently declined dramatically to c.2,700 birds in 1986 (Oliveira et al. 1999). However, the population recovered rapidly soon after the ban on hunting in 1986. Since then, estimates put the population at between 8,500 and 10,000 individuals (Oliveira et al. 2007, BirdLife International 2010, P. Sepúlveda in litt. 2011) in approximately 160 km2 of suitable habitat (P. Oliveira in litt. 1999, Oliveira et al. 1999). The most recent population estimate is 10,000-14,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). The species is now widespread throughout all areas of laurel forest, and has reoccupied many parts of its former range that it had previously deserted (Madeira National Park Service in litt. 2010). Tracewski et al. (2016) estimated the maximum Area of Occupancy (calculated as the remaining tree area within the species’s range) to be 13.65 km2, however the laurel forest is said to be increasing in area (C. Gouveia in litt. 2017) and the species is being found outside of the laurel forest (C. Gouveia in litt. 2017), so this is considered to be an underestimate.|
|♦ Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:||12||♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||820|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|♦ Upper elevation limit (metres):||850|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|