Caprimulgus concretus 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Caprimulgiformes Caprimulgidae

Scientific Name: Caprimulgus concretus
Species Authority: Bonaparte, 1850
Common Name(s):
English Bonaparte's Nightjar, Bonaparte's Nightjar
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
Identification information: 21-22 cm. Medium-sized, cryptically patterned, forest-dwelling nightjar. Male has brown upperparts, spotted chestnut and lacking nuchal collar. Dark brown wings with feathering tipped and spotted chestnut and buff. Dark scapulars broadly fringed pale buff. White submoustachial stripe and throat. Brown underparts barred chestnut, becoming buff with brown bars on belly and flanks. White tips to outermost tail feathers. No white in wing. Female similar, but only rarely has any white in tail. Voice Strange, low, mournful wa-ouuu, the second note descending in pitch, given mainly at dawn, dusk and on moonlit nights.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2c+3c+4c ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Davison, G., Yong, D., Bishop, K., Yong, D. & Brickle, N.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Bird, J., Taylor, J., Tobias, J., Allinson, T
This species qualifies as Vulnerable because it is restricted to low-lying forest in a region where this habitat-type is being cleared and degraded at such a catastrophic rate that rapid and continuing population declines are suspected.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Vulnerable (VU)
2004 Vulnerable (VU)
2000 Vulnerable (VU)
1994 Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
1988 Near Threatened (NT)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Caprimulgus concretus occurs on Sumatra, Belitung Island and Kalimantan (Borneo), Indonesia, Brunei, and Sabah and Sarawak (Borneo), Malaysia, where it is locally common, but rarely recorded (BirdLife International 2001). Most recent observations are from South Sumatra (e.g. Way Kambas National Park) and East Borneo (e.g. Danum Valley) (D. Yong in litt. 2012). it has also been recorded recently near the Barito river in Central Kalimantan (N. Brickle in litt. 2012). This patchiness of distribution at least partly reflects the ease with which it is overlooked, but it does appear genuinely rare at many localities.

Countries occurrence:
Brunei Darussalam; Indonesia; Malaysia
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 981000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Number of Locations: 11-100
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Upper elevation limit (metres): 500
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population size is preliminarily estimated to fall into the band 10,000-19,999 mature individuals. This equates to 15,000-29,999 individuals in total, rounded here to 15,000-30,000 individuals.

Trend Justification:  Rates of forest loss in the Sundaic lowlands have been very rapid owing to logging, the spread of agriculture and forest fires. As a result, this specialist of lowland forest is suspected to be declining rapidly.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 10000-19999 Continuing decline of mature individuals: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
No. of subpopulations: 2-100 Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It is restricted to lower elevations (one record from 900 m, but usually below 500 m) where it frequents forest, perhaps particularly clearings and edges, heath forest and secondary growth. The true nature of its habitat use is uncertain, although it has been observed foraging from a perch inside forest.

Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Unknown
Generation Length (years): 5.6
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): If this bird is an extreme lowland forest specialist, as appears possible, then it must be in steep decline from habitat loss. Rates of forest loss in the Sundaic lowlands have been extremely rapid (Kalimantan lost nearly 25% of its evergreen forest during 1985-1997, and Sumatra lost almost 30% of its 1985 cover), because of a variety of factors, including the escalation of logging and land conversion, with deliberate targeting of all remaining stands of valuable timber including those inside protected areas. Furthermore, the major fires of 1997-1998 affected c.50,000 km2 of forest on Sumatra and Borneo, damaged at least 17 of Indonesia's parks and reserves and, following previous major conflagrations in 1972 and 1982-1983, accelerated the desiccation of the forest environment that renders regrowth and unburnt adjacent areas more vulnerable to fire and poorer in biodiversity.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
The species occurs at Way Kambas National Park, Sumatra, Gunung Niut Nature Reserve, Kalimantan and the Danum Valley Conservation Area (Sabah). Further research is likely to reveal its presence at other lowland protected areas in the future.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct surveys throughout the three islands that it occupies using knowledge of its distinctive call as the basis. Investigate its altitudinal distribution, ecological requirements and the levels of threat that it faces and thereby determine whether any specific conservation measures are required. Support the conservation of relevant lowland protected areas. Lobby for reduced logging of lowland forest in the Sundaic region.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Caprimulgus concretus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22689993A37999040. . Downloaded on 01 December 2015.
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