|Scientific Name:||Surnia ulula (Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S. & Ashpole, J|
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (extent of occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be fluctuating, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
Native:Canada; China; Estonia; Finland; Kazakhstan; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Kyrgyzstan; Mongolia; Norway; Russian Federation (Central Asian Russia, Eastern Asian Russia, European Russia); Sweden; United States
Vagrant:Austria; Belarus; Belgium; Bermuda; Czech Republic; Denmark; Faroe Islands; France; Germany; Hungary; Japan; Luxembourg; Montenegro; Netherlands; Poland; Romania; Serbia; Slovakia; Spain; Switzerland; Ukraine; United Kingdom
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The global population is estimated to number > c.120,000 individuals which equates to 80,000 mature individuals (Partners in Flight Science Committee 2013). The North American population is estimated at approximately 60,000 individuals which equates to 40,000 mature individuals (Partners in Flight Science Committee 2013). The European population is estimated at 10,400-53,900 pairs, which equates to 20,800-108,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 13% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 160,000-831,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. The population is precautionarily placed in the band 100,000-499,999 mature individuals however the actual population could be larger.|
Trend Justification: The overall trend is likely to be fluctuating. This species has undergone a small or statistically insignificant increase over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). Note, however, that these surveys cover less than 50% of the species's range in North America. In Europe the population size trend is unknown (BirdLife International 2015).
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Major Threat(s):||The species is dependent on rodent populations and numbers fluctuate with the abundance of small rodents. In Finland, the population has declined since 19th century, as a result of disappearance of hollow trees and through human persecution (Holt et al. 2013). In North America, forestry practices and fire suppression may reduce suitable habitat (Holt et al. 2013). The species is known to be vulnerable to West Nile Virus (Komar 2003).|
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2016. Surnia ulula. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22689189A93221920.Downloaded on 20 May 2018.|
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