Strix uralensis 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Strigiformes Strigidae

Scientific Name: Strix uralensis
Species Authority: Pallas, 1771
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Ural Owl
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
Taxonomic Notes: Strix uralensis and S. davidi were considered distinct species by Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993), König et al. (1999) and Marks et al. (1999) but this treatment is not followed by the BirdLife Taxonomic Working Group because the split of Strix davidi from S. uralensis is based upon the former's overall darker plumage and contrasting concentric lines and marked rim to the facial disc, absent in uralensis. They do not, however, differ vocally or in morphometrics. While davidi also differs from fuscescens, geographically the closest race to davidi, in have having larger, paler spots on head and mantle and having a paler ground colour below, it is not clear how great differences are from nikolskii, the race of uralensis closest in appearance to davidi. This treatment is also followed by Cheng Tso-hsin (1987, 1994).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2013-11-03
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S. & Ashpole, J
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (extent of occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2013 Least Concern (LC)
2012 Least Concern (LC)
2009 Least Concern (LC)
2008 Least Concern (LC)
2004 Least Concern (LC)
2000 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1994 Not Recognized (NR)
1988 Not Recognized (NR)

Geographic Range [top]

Countries occurrence:
Albania; Austria; Belarus; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; China; Croatia; Czech Republic; Estonia; Finland; Germany; Hungary; Italy; Japan; Kazakhstan; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Latvia; Lithuania; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Mongolia; Montenegro; Norway; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Ukraine
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 12100000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Lower elevation limit (metres): 450
Upper elevation limit (metres): 1600
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The European population is estimated at 50,000-143,000 pairs, which equates to 99,900-286,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 25% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 396,000-1,140,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend Justification:  The population is suspected to be stable in part due to the provision of thousands of nest boxes in some areas to replace dead-wood habitat lost during forestry operations (del Hoyo et al. 1999). In Europe the population size is estimated to be increasing (BirdLife International 2015).
Current Population Trend: Stable
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 350000-1200000 Continuing decline of mature individuals: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): In areas dominated by open areas, such as fields and clearfells, the Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo) outcompetes this species (Hagemeijer and Blair 1997). It also suffers from forestry management, which has resulted in the loss of hollow and broken trees which provide nesting sites (König 2008, Holt et al. 2015).

Citation: BirdLife International. 2015. Strix uralensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T22689108A80498982. . Downloaded on 29 November 2015.
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