Phodilus prigoginei 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Strigiformes Tytonidae

Scientific Name: Phodilus prigoginei
Species Authority: Schouteden, 1952
Common Name(s):
English Congo Bay-owl, Congo Bay-Owl, Congo Bay Owl, African Bay Owl, Itombwe Owl
French Phodile de Prigogine
Spanish Lechuza del Congo
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
Identification information: 23-29 cm. Extremely beautiful, rich chestnut-brown owl. Only female ever described. Rusty-brown above with paler, orangey underparts. Compact and oval facial disc with dark eyes. Voice Possibly long, mournful whistles (but requires confirmation).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Taylor, J. & Butchart, S.
Contributor(s): Dowsett-Lemaire, F. & Plumptre, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ekstrom, J., Shutes, S., Symes, A., Taylor, J.
This poorly-known species is undoubtedly very rare and has a very small known range. It would appear to have very specific habitat requirements and, while a large area of its habitat remains, forest clearance and degradation are likely to be causing declines in range and numbers. It therefore qualifies as Endangered.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Endangered (EN)
2004 Endangered (EN)
2000 Endangered (EN)
1996 Vulnerable (VU)
1994 Vulnerable (VU)
1988 Threatened (T)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Phodilus prigoginei had not been recorded since the type-specimen was collected in 1951 at Muusi, in the Itombwe Mountains, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), until its rediscovery in 1996, when a female was mist-netted in the extreme south-east corner of Itombwe Forest (Butynski et al. 1997; Omari et al. 1999). This rediscovery extends the species's known range southwards by c.95 km and lowers its altitudinal range by approximately 600 m (Butynski et al. 1997). Itombwe is not the only forest in central Africa with a large area of highland forest/grassland habitat, and it is possible the species occurs elsewhere, especially in Nyungwe Forest (F. Dowsett-Lemaire in litt. 1999). There is a possible sighting in Burundi from 1974 and, in 1990, calls of an unidentified owl were tape-recorded in Nyungwe Forest, Rwanda (Dowsett-Lemaire 1990). Recent surveys of Kibira and Mt Kabogo, in which this species was targeted, were unsuccessful (A. Plumptre in litt. 2007).

Countries occurrence:
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 4700
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Number of Locations: 1
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Lower elevation limit (metres): 1800
Upper elevation limit (metres): 2400
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population is estimated at 9,360 individuals (10 individuals/km2 x 936 km2 [20% EOO]), i.e. within the range 2,500-9,999, and likely to be at lower end due to specific habitat requirements. This range equates to 3,750-14,999 individuals, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals. Density from estimate for congeneric Oriental Bay Owl P. badius; see BirdLife Population Density Spreadsheet.

Trend Justification:  This species is suspected to be in decline owing to the continuing destruction and degradation of its habitat. The likely rate of decline, however, has not been estimated.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 2500-9999 Continuing decline of mature individuals: Yes
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
No. of subpopulations: 2-100 Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: The record in 1951 was at 2,430 m, in a grass clearing. The 1996 rediscovery was in montane gallery forest at 1,830 m, where the slopes are covered with grass and bush and the lower slopes and valleys with montane forest (Butynski et al. 1997). The species would appear to require a mosaic of grassland and either montane or bamboo forest, and was netted in a slightly disturbed area, indicating that it may tolerate some human activity (Butynski et al. 1997).

Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes
Generation Length (years): 5.9
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Forest clearance for smallholder agriculture is a serious threat in Itombwe, where a maize blight since the early 1990s has reduced yields and forced farmers to clear forest for new farms (Omari et al. 1999). Gallery forest on the central savanna plateau, including the locality where the species was rediscovered, is being degraded as a result (Omari et al. 1999). Clearance of forest for livestock-grazing, particularly at higher altitudes, is also a threat (Omari et al. 1999).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. Itombwe Forest has recently been gazetted as a community reserve, although the boundaries still need to be defined (A. Plumptre in litt. 2007).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct surveys to determine the range and population of the species (Butynski et al. 1997). Research its ecology (Butynski et al. 1997). Facilitate conservation action in collaboration with traditional authorities to limit further habitat degradation (Omari et al. 1999).

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Phodilus prigoginei. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22688529A37993120. . Downloaded on 28 November 2015.
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