|Scientific Name:||Tyto nigrobrunnea|
|Species Authority:||Neumann, 1939|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered B1ab(ii,iii,v);C2a(ii) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Benstead, P., Bird, J., Davidson, P., Taylor, J., Tobias, J., Allinson, T|
This inconspicuous and extremely poorly known forest owl is judged to qualify for Endangered because it has a very small range, and hence presumably a very small population, both of which are undergoing continuing declines on the single island it is known to inhabit. The primary factor underlying this trend is extensive logging, a threat that is set to intensify as most remaining lowland forest on the island is under timber concession.
Tyto nigrobrunnea is endemic to the Sula Islands, Maluku, Indonesia, where it is known from just one specimen (collected in 1938) and a handful of subsequent sight records, all from the largest island in the group, Taliabu (Davidson et al. 1991, Rheindt 2010). It is possible, however, that future surveys will reveal its presence on the neighbouring island of Mangole and perhaps Sanana (Rheindt 2010). There is no information on its population size, but the paucity of records (even taking into account its inconspicuous nature and the fact that it could easily be overlooked) indicate that it is likely to be very scarce. However, it appears to be well-known to villagers at Binadesa and recent records suggest it can occupy secondary growth and bamboo thickets in the vicinity of habitation.
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population is estimated to number 250-999 mature individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 375-1,499 individuals in total, rounded here to 350-1,500 individuals.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Little is known of its ecology. The only specimen was collected in lowland forest, however, recent sightings have been made in heavily logged forest and dense secondary bamboo thickets suggesting that it can tolerance habitat degradation (Rheindt 2010). Unlike on other islands in the region, there is no open-country congener on Taliabu, which may have allowed it to adapt to disturbed habitats (Rheindt 2010). It apparently occurs within a broad elevational range (Rheindt 2010).|
|Major Threat(s):||Large-scale logging of lowland forest has taken place, and some areas have been clear-felled for industrial timber production. Most of Taliabu's lowland forest, below 800 m, is designated for logging concessions. Selective logging has already produced a mosaic of different-aged forest stands, with few, if any, extensive tracts of primary lowland forest remaining, except perhaps in the central south-west of the island. The effects of habitat degradation on this species remain unknown, but in combination the processes driving forest loss are thought to represent considerable threats.|
Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. A seven week avifaunal survey was conducted on Taliabu in 1991. A strict nature reserve has been proposed for the island, but only c.18% encompasses lowland forest, and it remains to be confirmed that this site is appropriate for the conservation of this rare owl. Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct widespread searches for the species (including the neighbouring islands of Mangole and Sanana), questioning local people about its possible presence and clarifying its range, distribution, status and ecological requirements. Reassess its threat status and conservation needs, recommending further areas for protection where appropriate. Ensure effective management of any forthcoming protected area on Taliabu.
|Citation:||BirdLife International 2012. Tyto nigrobrunnea. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 01 April 2015.|
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