|Scientific Name:||Tyto nigrobrunnea|
|Species Authority:||Neumann, 1939|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.|
|Identification information:||31-32 cm. Medium-sized, forest-dwelling owl. Female has dark brown upperparts with lines of small white spots. Dark and unbarred wings, secondaries with whitish tips, brown tail with three dark bars. Golden-brown underparts, spotted and vermiculated black. Black iris. Male presumably similar but undescribed. Similar spp. Brown Hawk-owl Ninox scutulata is smaller with yellow irides, streaked underparts and barred tail. Voice a hissing sound typical of the genus (Rheindt 2010).
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable D1 ver 3.1|
|Contributor(s):||Rheindt, F. & Robson, C.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Benstead, P., Bird, J., Davidson, P., Taylor, J., Tobias, J., Allinson, T & Ashpole, J|
This inconspicuous and extremely poorly known forest owl has been downlisted to Vulnerable because although it is suspected to have a very small population of less than 1,000 mature individuals, it appears to tolerate substantial habitat degradation and is therefore no longer inferred to be undergoing continuing declines.
|Previously published Red List assessments:||
|Range Description:||This species is endemic to the Sula Islands, Maluku, Indonesia, where it is known from just one specimen (collected in 1938) and a handful of subsequent sight records, all from the largest island in the group, Taliabu (Davidson et al. 1991, Rheindt 2010). However, it appears to be well-known to villagers at Binadesa and recent records suggest it can occupy secondary growth and bamboo thickets in the vicinity of habitation. Evidence also suggests that it may occur within a broad elevational range (Rheindt 2010, C. Robson in litt. 2013). It is possible that future surveys will reveal its presence on the neighbouring island of Mangole and perhaps Sanana (Rheindt 2010). There is no information on its population size, but the paucity of records (even taking into account its inconspicuous nature and the fact that it could easily be overlooked) indicate that it could still be very scarce.
|Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Yes|
|Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No|
|Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||2900|
|Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|Upper elevation limit (metres):||800|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population is estimated to number 250-999 mature individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated extent of occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 375-1,499 individuals in total, rounded here to 350-1,500 individuals.
Trend Justification: This species was previously suspected to be in decline as a result of extensive logging and some clear-felling on the island of Taliabu, however its apparent tolerance of degraded habitat suggests it may not be undergoing significant declines,
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Little is known of its ecology. The only specimen was collected in lowland forest, however, recent sightings have been made in heavily logged forest and dense secondary bamboo thickets suggesting that it can tolerance habitat degradation (Rheindt 2010). Unlike on other islands in the region, there is no open-country congener on Taliabu, which may have allowed it to adapt to disturbed habitats (Rheindt 2010). It apparently occurs within a broad elevational range (Rheindt 2010).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Generation Length (years):||6.1|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Major Threat(s):||Large-scale logging of lowland forest has taken place, and some areas have been clear-felled for industrial timber production. Most of Taliabu's lowland forest, below 800 m, is designated for logging concessions. Selective logging has already produced a mosaic of different-aged forest stands, with few, if any, extensive tracts of primary lowland forest remaining, except perhaps in the central south-west of the island. The effects of habitat degradation on this species remain unknown, but in combination the processes driving forest loss are thought to represent considerable threats.|
Conservation and Research Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. Present in Banggai and Sula Islands EBA (Bruce and Kirwan 2013). A seven week avifaunal survey was conducted on Taliabu in 1991. A strict nature reserve has been proposed for the island, but only c. 18% encompasses lowland forest, and it remains to be confirmed that this site is appropriate for the conservation of this rare owl.
Conservation and Research Actions Proposed
Conduct widespread searches for the species (including the neighbouring islands of Mangole and Sanana), questioning local people about its possible presence and clarifying its range, distribution, status and ecological requirements. Reassess its threat status and conservation needs, recommending further areas for protection where appropriate. Ensure effective management of any forthcoming protected area on Taliabu.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2015. Tyto nigrobrunnea. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T22688449A83520589. . Downloaded on 13 February 2016.|
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