Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Caprimulgiformes Trochilidae

Scientific Name: Coeligena prunellei
Species Authority: (Bourcier, 1843)
Common Name(s):
English Black Inca
Spanish Inca Negro
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
Identification information: 11 cm. Dark hummingbird with long, needle-like bill. Mainly black with conspicuous white patch on each side of chest and postocular spot. Glittering blue shoulders. Small greenish-blue throat patch. White-edged undertail-coverts. Black and forked tail. Long, slender, straight black bill. Rosy-red legs. Female slightly duller overall. Similar spp. White pectoral patches are unique. Voice Rarely heard ick when feeding.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B1ab(i,ii,iii,v);C2a(i) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Donegan, T., Negret, A., Salaman, P., Züchner, T. & Cortés, O.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Isherwood, I., Mahood, S., Sharpe, C J, Stuart, T., Symes, A.
This species has has a larger range and population than previously thought. Nonetheless, its range is still highly fragmented and habitat patches are decreasing in size and quality through ongoing degradation and clearance for agriculture. It is therefore considered Vulnerable.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Vulnerable (VU)
2004 Endangered (EN)
2000 Endangered (EN)
1996 Vulnerable (VU)
1994 Vulnerable (VU)
1988 Threatened (T)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Coeligena prunellei is endemic to Colombia where it occurs on the west slope of the East Andes (Santander, Boyacá, Cundinamarca) and on both the western and eastern slopes of Serranía de los Yariguíes (Donegan and Avendaño 2006). A 1976 specimen of this species was incorrectly labelled as having been collected on the south-west slope of Volcán Tolima in the Central Andes of Quindío (A. J. Negret in litt. 1995). It is locally common at Laguna de Pedropalo (Cundinimarca), Cerro Carare (Boyacá), at 2,000 m on El Talisman and Guanentá-Alto Río Fonce Fauna and Flora Sanctuary (Santander) (Andrade and Repizzo 1994, Wege and Long 1995, Donegan et al. 2003) on the western slope and at La Luchata on the eastern slope of the Serranía de los Yariguíes (Donegan and Avendaño 2006).

Countries occurrence:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 6400
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Number of Locations: 5
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Lower elevation limit (metres): 1000
Upper elevation limit (metres): 2800
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Velasquez-Tibata et al. (2005) used a habitat model to estimate the population at 4,070-8,720 individuals, and so it is placed in the band 2,500-9,999 mature individuals. This equates to 3,750-14,999 individuals, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.

Trend Justification:  The degradation of remaining habitat patches within the species's range continues, hence its population is suspected to be declining at a slow to moderate rate.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 2500-9999 Continuing decline of mature individuals: Yes
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: Yes
No. of subpopulations: 2-100 Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This is principally a species of mature humid montane forest, especially areas with a predominance of oak Quercus humboldti and Trigonobalanus excelsa. Although birds have also been recorded in open parkland and riverine gallery forest the species is a trap liner and probably relies on the persistance of mature oak forest (P. Salaman in litt. 2007). Most observations have been at 1,675-2,500 m, but it is known between 1,000 and 2,800 m (Schuchmann 1999, T. Züchner in litt. 1999). Breeding is thought to take place between June and October.

Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes
Generation Length (years): 4.2
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The upper Magdalena valley and the Sagamosa drainage have been undergoing habitat loss, fragmentation and alteration since the 17th century (Stiles et al. 1999). The primary causes are human settlement and urbanisation, with associated logging and agricultural land-use including coffee and, to a lesser extent, plantain and sugarcane plantations and pastures (Stiles et al. 1999). As a result, tiny remnant forest patches are restricted to steep slopes and along streams (Stiles et al. 1999), with the significant exception of Guanentá-Alto Río Fonce (Wege and Long 1995). However, there are still extensive forests that are poorly known to ornithology in the Serranía de las Quinchas, west Boyacá (Stiles et al. 1999). It is considered Endangered in Colombia (Renjifo et al. 2002).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. It is protected at Guanentá-Alto Río Fonce Fauna and Flora Sanctuary (Andrade and Repizzo 1994) and Parque Regional Chicaque (Cortes in litt. 2012).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct surveys in relatively inaccessible and well forested parts of the Serranía de las Quinchas (Stiles et al. 1999). Study its ecology and breeding behaviour (T. Züchner in litt. 1999). Prepare a management plan for the species (T. Züchner in litt. 1999). Augment conservation activities in Guanentá-Alto Río Fonce Fauna and Flora Sanctuary (P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999). Protect areas of the favoured habitat holding significant populations (P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999, T. Züchner in litt. 1999).

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Coeligena prunellei. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22687813A37937323. . Downloaded on 04 October 2015.
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