Amazilia boucardi 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Caprimulgiformes Trochilidae

Scientific Name: Amazilia boucardi
Species Authority: (Mulsant, 1877)
Common Name(s):
English Mangrove Hummingbird
Spanish Amazilia de Manglar
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
Identification information: 9.5 cm. Medium-sized, bronze-and-green hummingbird. Male pale green on crown and upperparts, with bronze tinge to rump. Bronze-green tail. Turquoise-green throat and chest. Whitish underparts mottled pale green on breast and sides. Dark bill with reddish lower mandible. Female similar with mainly white underparts and little green spotting on throat and sides. Similar spp. Snowy-bellied Hummingbird A. edward has sharp contrast between green and white underparts and much rustier tail. Female White-bellied Emerald A. candida has blacker tail and more green on chest. Voice Soft djt and rapid, descending twitter.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Symes, A. & Butchart, S.
Contributor(s): Biamonte, E., Criado, J., Garrigues, R., Sandoval, L., Stiles, F., Sánchez, C., Sánchez, J., Zook, J. & Gómez, C.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Isherwood, I., Sharpe, C J, Taylor, J.
Habitat destruction is reducing and severely fragmenting the naturally very small and disjunct range of this species (Collar et al. 1992). It consequently qualifies as Endangered.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Endangered (EN)
2004 Endangered (EN)
2000 Endangered (EN)
1996 Vulnerable (VU)
1994 Vulnerable (VU)
1988 Threatened (T)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Amazilia boucardi is very local on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica from the head of Golfo de Nicoya to Golfo Dulce. The species was recently discovered in two new mangrove forest sites on the outer Nicoya Peninsula; a female was trapped in January 2005 and two were trapped in 2006 at Estero Tamarindo (Las Baulas de Guanacaste Marine National Park), and in August 2006, a male and female were observed at Playa Venado (R. Garrigues in litt. 2007). It is patchily distributed even within the four or five large mangrove forests in this range (Harcourt and Sayer 1996), probably reflecting the presence of its preferred food-plant, the Pacific mangrove Pelliciera rhizophorae. Despite tolerating some habitat alteration where P. rhizophorae remains common, it is absent from many areas of apparently suitable habitat. The population in the Important Bird Areas of Costa Rica has been estimated at 2,150-4,150 mature individuals (J. Criado et al. in litt. 2007).

Countries occurrence:
Costa Rica
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 1000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Number of Locations: 6-10
Continuing decline in number of locations: Yes
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population is estimated to number 2,500-9,999 individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 1,667-6,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 1,500-7,000 mature individuals.

Trend Justification:  The species's population is suspected to be declining at a moderate rate, in line with the clearance and degradation of mangrove forests in its range.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 1500-7000 Continuing decline of mature individuals: Yes
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: Yes
No. of subpopulations: 2-100 Continuing decline in subpopulations: Yes
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It feeds principally on the flowers of P. rhizophorae, but is occasionally observed in adjacent, non-mangrove habitats. Nesting has been recorded in October-February.

Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes
Generation Length (years): 3.4
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The construction of salinas and shrimp ponds, and selective logging for charcoal production are destroying mangrove habitats (F. G. Stiles in litt. 1999). Other threats include illegal cutting, dyke and road construction (which have affected the hydrology in a number of places), and pollution (notably around the Golfo de Nicoya port of Puntarenas). The entire Pacific coast of Costa Rica is under heavy development pressure, with potentially negative effects on mangrove forests (R. Garrigues in litt. 2007). This species could be affected by a significant rise in sea-level caused by climate change (R. Garrigues in litt. 2012).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. A small population occurs in Tivives Biological Reserve. Cutting mangroves is illegal in Costa Rica, but this law is widely ignored.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey to determine its population size, current distribution and the quality of remaining mangroves. Monitor the clearance and degradation of mangrove forests within the species's range. Investigate the causes of its absence from patches of apparently suitable habitat. Expand Carara Biological Reserve to protect mangroves around the mouth of the río Grande de Tárcoles. Protect mangroves north of Corcovado National Park around the río Sierpe (Capper et al. 1998). Perhaps use this endemic species as part of an awareness campaign to promote the protection of mangrove forests (R. Garrigues in litt. 2007).

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Amazilia boucardi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22687562A38158243. . Downloaded on 27 November 2015.
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