|Scientific Name:||Thalurania watertonii|
|Species Authority:||(Bourcier, 1847)|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.|
|Identification information:||Male c. 13 cm and female c. 10 cm. Medium-sized straight bill. Male has green crown and lower neck, iridescent violet-blue black, grass green underparts and violet-blue flanks and a long, deeply forked tail. Female has golden green crown and hindneck, bluish-green lower back and uniformly greyish-white underparts, tail not elongated but slightly forked (Schuchmann and Kirwan 2013). Voice Suspected to make loud "chipping" calls at varying speeds and often for long periods (Schuchmann and Kirwan 2013).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered B2ab(ii,iii,v); C2a(i) ver 3.1|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Benstead, P., Harding, M., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A., Williams, R. & Ashpole, J|
This species has been uplisted to Endangered. It has a small population (<2,500 individuals) and a moderately small and severely fragmented range, with each subpopulation holding less than 250 individuals (ICMBio 2015). The population is suspected to be declining owing to habitat loss (del Hoyo et al. 1999).
|Previously published Red List assessments:||
|Range Description:||This species is confined to Pernambuco, Alagoas and Sergipe, Brazil (ICMBio 2014). It apparently occurs in northern Bahia (Schuchmann and Kirwan 2013), although there are no recent records (WikiAves 2015). Reports from eastern Pará are probably erroneous (Pacheco and Kirwan 2013). It is known from just one type specimen in Guyana, although the true origin of the specimen is uncertain (Schuchmann and Kirwan 2013). It is common but presumably declining due to habitat loss. The species's relative abundance is low in RPPN Pedra D'Anta and RPPN Frei Caneca (C.O.A. Gussoni in litt. 2015).|
|Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:||499|
|Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Yes|
|Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No|
|Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||34800|
|Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|Upper elevation limit (metres):||700|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The global population is estimated at less than 2,500 individuals, with no more than 250 individuals in each subpopulation (ICMBio 2014).
Trend Justification: The population is suspected to be declining owing to widespread deforestation which is thought to be severe in some areas, although it is noted that the species will accept altered habitats as long as forest patches or stands of trees remain.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It is restricted to lowland habitats such as coastal rainforest, cerrado, plantations and parks throughout its Atlantic forest range. It forages in the understorey and middle strata, usually on the periphery of vegetation on nectar and occasional invertebrates. Males defend territories against conspecific intruders and other hummingbirds. Breeding occurs between November and February.|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Generation Length (years):||4.2|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Major Threat(s):||Widespread and continuing disappearance of lowland forest in north-eastern Brazil is likely to be causing declines, the Atlantic forests north of the Sao Francisco river having been drastically reduced, with less than 4% remaining by 1995. It seems able to accept man-made habitats as long as patches of forest or stands of scattered trees remain.|
Conservation and Research Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. It occurs in Monte Pascoal National Park and Pedra Talhada State Park. It is also found in RPPN Pedra D'Anta and RPPN Frei Caneca (C.O.A. Gussoni in litt. 2015). Listed as Endangered on the 2014 Brazilian Red List (ICMBio 2014).
Conservation and Research Actions Proposed
Effectively protect and manage protected areas where the species occurs. Study its ecology and its ability to persist in degraded and fragmented habitats. Attempt to obtain an accurate estimate of its population size and trends.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2015. Thalurania watertonii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T22687402A84462116. . Downloaded on 05 May 2016.|
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