Amazona kawalli 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Psittaciformes Psittacidae

Scientific Name: Amazona kawalli
Species Authority: Grantsau & Camargo, 1989
Common Name(s):
English White-faced Amazon, White-cheeked Amazon, Kawall's Parrot
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
Identification information: 35-36 cm. Medium-sized, green parrot. Mostly green, with a narrow white strip at the base of the bill, narrow white eye-ring, and some blue and red on the outermost flight feathers.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2013-11-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S.
Contributor(s): Lees, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Harding, M., Khwaja, N., Symes, A.

Based on a model of future deforestation in the Amazon basin, and the species’s susceptibility to habitat fragmentation and hunting, it is suspected that its population will decline by 25-30% over the next three generations, and it has therefore been uplisted to Near Threatened.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2012 Near Threatened (NT)
2009 Least Concern (LC)
2008 Least Concern (LC)
2004 Least Concern (LC)
2000 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1994 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1988 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species was only recently discovered, and appears to be confined to the Amazon basin of Brazil in Amazonas and Pará. However, a previously misidentified specimen labelled Colombia exists, and as a cryptic and poorly known species, it may have been overlooked and is likely to have a wider distribution than reported (del Hoyo et al. 1997, Juniper and Parr 1998, A. Lees in litt. 2011). A captive bird found on the edge of Amazonas National Park suggests its presence there (del Hoyo et al. 1997).
Countries occurrence:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 883000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'rare' (Stotz et al. 1996).

Trend Justification:  This species is suspected to lose 19.1-33.6% of suitable habitat within its distribution over three generations (37 years) based on a model of Amazonian deforestation (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). However, the species is judged to have a larger distribution than indicated in the map used in this analysis (A. Lees in litt 2011), therefore suspected to decline by 25-30% over three generations.
Current Population Trend: Stable
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: Unknown Continuing decline of mature individuals: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: The species inhabits lowland rainforest, with a preference for "igapó" (permanently flooded forest) and river edge forest. It nests in cavities of trees in flooded forest, and is known to feed on tree seeds and palm fruits.
Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Unknown
Generation Length (years): 12.3
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

The primary threat to this species is accelerating deforestation in the Amazon basin as land is cleared for cattle ranching and soy production, facilitated by expansion of the road network, and it is thought to be vulnerable to fragmentation and disturbance (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011, A. Lees in litt. 2011). Proposed changes to the Brazilian Forest Code reduce the percentage of land a private landowner is legally required to maintain as forest (including, critically, a reduction in the width of forest buffers alongside perennial steams) and include an amnesty for landowners who deforested before July 2008 (who would subsequently be absolved of the need to reforest illegally cleared land) (Bird et al. 2011).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
The species is listed under CITES Appendix II.

Conservation Actions Proposed

Expand the protected area network to effectively protect IBAs. Effectively resource and manage existing and new protected areas, utilising emerging opportunities to finance protected area management with the joint aims of reducing carbon emissions and maximizing biodiversity conservation. Conservation on private lands, through expanding market pressures for sound land management and preventing forest clearance on lands unsuitable for agriculture, is also essential (Soares-Filho et al. 2006). Campaign against proposed changes to the Brazilian Forest Code that would lead to a decrease in the width of the areas of riverine forest protected as Permanent Preservation Areas (APPs), which function as vital corridors in fragmented landscapes.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2013. Amazona kawalli. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T22686363A50399921. . Downloaded on 26 November 2015.
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