Alipiopsitta xanthops 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Psittaciformes Psittacidae

Scientific Name: Alipiopsitta xanthops
Species Authority: (Spix, 1824)
Common Name(s):
English Yellow-faced Amazon, Yellow-faced Parrot
Spanish Amazona de Cara Amarilla, Amazona del Cerrado
Amazona xanthops Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993)
Amazona xanthops Stotz et al. (1996)
Amazona xanthops BirdLife International (2000)
Amazona xanthops BirdLife International (2004)
Amazona xanthops Collar and Andrew (1988)
Amazona xanthops Collar et al. (1994)
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
Taxonomic Notes: Amazona xanthops (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) is transferred to the genus Alipiopsitta following SACC (2006, 2007).

Identification information: 26.5 cm. Green-and-yellow parrot. Pale green above. Yellow crown, lores and cheeks. Rest of head yellow, broadly scaled green. Greenish-yellow underparts scaled green. Yellow patches with orange mottling on sides of belly. White periocular. Distinctive bill with mostly dark maxilla and yellowish mandible. Immature is greener and has more restricted yellow on head. Similar spp. Blue-fronted Amazon A. aestiva is larger, with turquoise forecrown and different breast pattern. Voice High-pitched kréwe-kréwe and grayo-grayo calls.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Olmos, F., Silva, P., Silva, S. & Yamashita, C.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Capper, D., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A.
This species is classified as Near Threatened because its population is suspected to be declining moderately rapidly owing to habitat loss.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Near Threatened (NT)
2004 Near Threatened (NT)
2000 Vulnerable (VU)
1996 Vulnerable (VU)
1994 Vulnerable (VU)
1988 Threatened (T)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Alipiopsitta xanthops is restricted to the cerrado biome of interior Brazil (Maranhão, Piauí, Tocantins, Bahia, Minas Gerais, Goiás, Distrito Federal, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul and formerly São Paulo) (Snyder et al. 2000) and north-central Bolivia (two records from Beni: San Joaquín, east of río Mamoré, in 1964 and a captive bird caught north of Santa Ana in the 1990s) (Remsen et al. 1986, Armonía 1995, C. Yamashita in litt. 2000). It has been listed for Paraguay (Forshaw and Cooper 1989), but there is no confirmed evidence of its presence (Hayes 1995). It is occasionally locally common (Sick 1993), but mainly occurs at low densities and is now absent in many parts of its former range.

Countries occurrence:
Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 1900000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Number of Locations: 11-100
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Lower elevation limit (metres): 600
Upper elevation limit (metres): 1200
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'uncommon' (Stotz et al. 1996).

Trend Justification:  A moderately rapid and on-going population decline is suspected owing to habitat loss.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: Unknown Continuing decline of mature individuals: Yes
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: Yes
No. of subpopulations: 2-100 Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This semi-nomadic cerrado specialist occurs in wooded grassland (cerradão), spiny arid scrub (caatinga), gallery forest and Mauritia palm-stands (Willis and Oniki 1988, Sick 1993). It is a generalist and its diet consists of flowers, fruit and seeds (Bianchi 2009). Food species include Pouteria ramiflora, Mauritia flexuosa, Erythroxylum suberosum, Annona coriacea, Rubus cf. fruticosusas (Bianchi 2009), Anacardium, Salacia crassifolia and Astronium fraxinifolium (Juniper and Parr 1998). Birds have been reported taking unripe guava Psidium fruit in plantations and will spend weeks visiting mango trees (Juniper and Parr 1998, Bianchi 2009). Maize Zea mays is also eaten (Bianchi 2009). Birds have been observed feeding opportunistically on termites (Bianchi 2009). However, the semi-nomadism of the species suggests that it depends on unpredictable food resources. Breeding takes place between May and October in Emas National Park (Bianchi 2009).

Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes
Generation Length (years): 6.9
Movement patterns: Nomadic

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): By 1993, two-thirds of the Cerrado region had been either heavily or moderately altered (Conservation International 1999), with most of the destruction having occurred since 1950 (Cavalcanti 1999). High-quality cerrado grasslands are being rapidly destroyed by mechanised agriculture, intensive cattle-ranching, afforestation, invasive grasses, excessive use of pesticides and annual burning ( Stotz et al. 1996, Parker and Willis 1997). Caatinga habitats are less threatened, but still suffer conversion to agriculture, grazing and burning. Nine wild-caught birds were recorded in international trade in 1991-1995 (Snyder et al. 2000).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. It occurs notably in Emas, Brasília, Araguaia, Grande Sertões Veredas, Chapada dos Veadeiros and Chapada dos Guimarães National Parks and Mangabeiras Environmental Protection Area (Forrester 1993, Machado et al. 1998, F. Olmos in litt. 1999, Snyder et al. 2000), but no protected area holds permanent populations.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey to determine its current distribution (Snyder et al. 2000), especially in poorly-known reserves such as Uruçuí-Una Ecological Station, Piauí, and Mirador State Park, Maranhão (F. Olmos in litt. 1999). Collate data on specimen and recent records to provide an improved assessment of distribution and status. Estimate the total wild population (Bianchi 2009). Assess the impact of habitat loss (Snyder et al. 2000). Create a network of large reserves in Bahia, Maranhão and Piauí (F. Olmos in litt. 1999). Effectively protect Mangabeiras.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Alipiopsitta xanthops. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22686311A38027286. . Downloaded on 02 December 2015.
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