||Amazona brasiliensis (Linnaeus, 1758)
||Red-tailed Amazon, Red-tailed Parrot
||Amazona Colirroja, Loro Cariazul, Papagayo de Cara Roja
||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
||37 cm. Green parrot with colourful head. Overall deep green with yellowish margins to feathers. Red forecrown and lores, becoming purplish on mid-crown. Bluish auricular and face, paler on cheeks and throat. Duskier wings with some red on shoulders. Bluish base to tail feathers, broad red band and yellow tips, except green central rectrices. Horn-coloured bill. Voice High-pitched and musical growls, klit-cráu, klit-cráú, and liquid chatters.
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
||Bóçon, R., Olmos, F. & Waugh, D.
||Benstead, P., Capper, D., Harding, M., Sharpe, C.J., Symes, A.
Trapping for the cagebird trade and habitat loss are the most important threats to this species. Despite heavy trapping pressure in the early 1990s, the species's range is believed to have remained essentially the same, and populations have remained stable or declined less steeply than was previously feared they might, with a recent estimate even suggesting a population increase. Owing to its small breeding range and highly fragmented habitat, the species qualifies as Vulnerable.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2013 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2012 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2008 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2004 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2000 – Endangered (EN)
- 1996 – Endangered (EN)
- 1994 – Endangered (EN)
- 1988 – Threatened (T)
|Range Description:||Amazona brasiliensis occurs in a narrow littoral strip, between the Serra do Mar and coast, from Itanhaém in São Paulo through Paraná to extreme north-east Santa Catarina, south-east Brazil (Lalime 1997). Breeding areas are mostly located on small estuarine islands with few on the mainland. Populations were thought to have declined from c.3,500-4,500 birds in the 1980s to fewer than 2,000 individuals by 1991-1992 (Martuscelli and Scherer Neto 1993). A recent estimate of 6,600 individuals suggests long-term conservation measures have enabled the species to make a recovery (Waugh 2006). The population in Paraná was estimated at 3,600 in 1996 (Lalime 1999), and a more recent census found 3,379 birds, suggesting that the population there is either stable or has suffered a small decline (F. Olmos in litt. 2003). Winter counts in 2015 recorded 7,464 individuals in Paraná and 1,712 in São Paulo with both populations continuing to increase (D. Waugh in litt. 2015).|
|♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||10100|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Yes||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Number of Locations:||6-10||♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|♦ Upper elevation limit (metres):||700|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Winter counts in 2015 recorded 7,464 individuals in Paraná and 1,712 in São Paulo with both populations continuing to increase (D. Waugh in litt. 2015). The population is therefore estimated to number 9,000-10,000 individuals, roughly equating to 6,000-6,700 mature individuals.|
Trend Justification: Long-term conservation measures are suspected to have contributed to a recent population increase at an unquantified rate, although habitat fragmentation and poaching remain significant threats (Waugh 2006).
|Current Population Trend:||Increasing|
|♦ Number of mature individuals:||6000-6700||♦ Continuing decline of mature individuals:||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations:||No||♦ Population severely fragmented:||No|
|♦ No. of subpopulations:||2-100||♦ Continuing decline in subpopulations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:||No||♦ All individuals in one subpopulation:||No|